Schistosomiasis is a parasitic and neglected tropical disease, and affects <200-million people across the world, with school-aged children disproportionately affected. Here we present field-testing results of a handheld and cost effective smartphone-based microscope in rural Ghana, Africa, for point-of-care diagnosis of S. haematobium infection. In this mobile-phone microscope, a custom-designed 3D printed opto-mechanical attachment (~150g) is placed in contact with the smartphone camera-lens, creating an imaging-system with a half-pitch resolution of ~0.87µm. This unit includes an external lens (also taken from a mobile-phone camera), a sample tray, a z-stage to adjust the focus, two light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and two diffusers for uniform illumination of the sample. In our field-testing, 60 urine samples, collected from children, were used, where the prevalence of the infection was 72.9%. After concentration of the sample with centrifugation, the sediment was placed on a glass-slide and S. haematobium eggs were first identified/quantified using conventional benchtop microscopy by an expert diagnostician, and then a second expert, blinded to these results, determined the presence/absence of eggs using our mobile-phone microscope. Compared to conventional microscopy, our mobile-phone microscope had a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.1%, specificity of 100%, positive-predictive-value of 100%, and a negative-predictive-value of 57.1%. Furthermore, our mobile-phone platform demonstrated a sensitivity of 65.7% and 100% for low-intensity infections (≤50 eggs/10 mL urine) and high-intensity infections (<50 eggs/10 mL urine), respectively. We believe that this cost-effective and field-portable mobile-phone microscope may play an important role in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and various other global health challenges.
Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Isaac I. Bogoch, Derek Tseng, Richard K. D. Ephraim, Evans Duah, Joseph Tee, Jason R. Andrews, and Aydogan Ozcan, "Field-testing of a cost-effective mobile-phone based microscope for screening of Schistosoma haematobium infection
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9699, Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings II, 96990J (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 3 May 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2209697.4848379551001.
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