The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use. To address this need, a double-integrating sphere based instrument has been installed to measure the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The basic system and methods have been described in previous papers. An important attribute in establishing a viable calibration service is the estimation of measurement uncertainties. The use of custom models and comparisons with other established scales enabled uncertainty measurements. Here, we describe the continuation of those efforts to advance the understanding of the uncertainties through two independent measurements: the bidirectional reflectance distribution function and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function of a commercially available solid biomedical phantom. A Monte Carlo-based model is used and the resulting optical properties are compared to the values provided by the phantom manufacturer.
Paul Lemaillet, Catherine C. Cooksey, Zachary H. Levine, Adam L. Pintar, Jeeseong Hwang, and David W. Allen, "National Institute of Standards and Technology measurement service of the optical properties of biomedical phantoms: current status," Proc. SPIE 9700, Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies IX, 970002 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 13, 2016; Published: 24 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214569.
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