The use of reliable tissue-simulating phantoms spans multiple applications in spectroscopic imaging including device calibration and testing of new imaging procedures. Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for the possibility of optical phantoms with arbitrary geometries and spatially varying optical properties. We recently demonstrated the ability to 3D print tissue-simulating phantoms with customized absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs`) by incorporating nigrosin, an absorbing dye, and titanium dioxide (TiO2), a scattering agent, to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) during filament extrusion. A physiologically relevant range of μa and μs` was demonstrated with high repeatability. We expand our prior work here by evaluating the effect of two important 3D-printing parameters, percent infill and layer height, on both μa and μs`. 2 cm3 cubes were printed with percent infill ranging from 10% to 100% and layer height ranging from 0.15 to 0.40 mm. The range in μa and μs` was 27.3% and 19.5% respectively for different percent infills at 471 nm. For varying layer height, the range in μa and μs` was 27.8% and 15.4% respectively at 471 nm. These results indicate that percent infill and layer height substantially alter optical properties and should be carefully controlled during phantom fabrication. Through the use of inexpensive hobby-level printers, the fabrication of optical phantoms may advance the complexity and availability of fully customizable phantoms over multiple spatial scales. This technique exhibits a wider range of adaptability than other common methods of fabricating optical phantoms and may lead to improved instrument characterization and calibration.
Sanjana Pannem, Jordan Sweer, Phuong Diep, Justine Lo, Michael Snyder, Gabriella Stueber, Yanyu Zhao, Syeda Tabassum, Raeef Istfan, Junjie Wu, Shyamsunder Erramilli, and Darren M. Roblyer, "Customized three-dimensional printed optical phantoms with user defined absorption and scattering," Proc. SPIE 9700, Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies IX, 970008 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 13, 2016; Published: 18 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2217051.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon