This paper presents the development and application of an approach for sensorizing a surgical robotic instrument for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) lateral force sensing. The sensorized instrument is compatible with the da Vinci® Surgical System and can be used for skills assessment and force control in specific surgical tasks. The sensing technology utilizes a novel layout of four fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors attached to the shaft of a da Vinci® surgical instrument. The two cross-section layout is insensitive to error caused by combined force and torque loads, and the orientation of the sensors minimizes the condition number of the instrument’s compliance matrix. To evaluate the instrument’s sensing capabilities, its performance was tested using a commercially available force-torque sensor, and showed a resolution of 0.05N at 1 kHz sampling rate. The performance of the sensorized instrument was evaluated by performing three surgical tasks on phantom tissue using the da Vinci® system with the da Vinci Research Kit (dVRK): tissue palpation, knot tightening during suturing and Hem-O-Lok® tightening during knotless suturing. The tasks were designed to demonstrate the robustness of the sensorized force measurement approach. The paper reports the results of further evaluation by a group of expert and novice surgeons performing the three tasks mentioned above.
Kaspar S. Shahzada, Aaron Yurkewich, Ran Xu, and Rajni V. Patel, "Sensorization of a surgical robotic instrument for force sensing," Proc. SPIE 9702, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVI, 97020U (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 7 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213385.
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