One major advantage of using gold nanoparticles is the possibility of tuning their absorption peak by modifying their surface plasma resonance. They are proven to be a promising multi-functional platform that can be used for many imaging and therapeutic applications. As a true multi-modality imaging technique, Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI) has a great potential to monitor the distribution of gold nanoparticles non-invasively with MR resolution. With a simple addon of a continuous wave laser to an MRI system, PMI uses the laser induced temperature increase, measured by MR Thermometry (MRT), to provide tissue optical absorption maps at MR resolution. PMI utilizes a Finite Element Method (FEM) based algorithm to solve the combined diffusion and bio-heat equations. This system of combined equations models the photon distribution in the tissue and heat generation due to the absorption of the light and consequent heat diffusion. The key characteristic of PMI is that its spatial resolution is preserved at any depth as long as the temperature change within the imaged medium is detectable by MRT. Agar phantoms containing gold nanoparticles are used to validate the ability of PMI in monitoring their distribution. To make PMI suitable for diagnostic purposes, the laser powers has been kept under the American National Standard Institute maximum skin exposure limits in this study.
Alex T. Luk, Farouk Nouizi, Michael Marks, Turkay Kart, and Gultekin Gulsen, "Monitoring gold nanoparticle distribution with high resolution using photo-magnetic imaging," Proc. SPIE 9706, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXVII, 97060M (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 18 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213852.
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