The Photonic Fence is a system designed to detect mosquitoes and other pestilent flying insects in an active region and to apply lethal doses of laser light to them. Previously, we determined lethal fluence levels for a variety of lasers and pulse conditions on anesthetized Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. In this work, similar studies were performed while the bugs were freely flying within transparent cages. Dose-response curves were created for various beam diameter, pulse width, and power conditions at 455 nm, 532 nm, 1064nm, and 1540 nm wavelengths. Besides mortality outcomes, the flight behavior of the bugs and the performance of the tracking system were monitored for consistency and to ensure that they had no impact on the mortality outcomes. As in anesthetized experiments, the visible wavelengths required significantly less fluence than near infrared wavelengths to reliably disable bugs. For the visible wavelengths, lethal fluence values were generally equivalent to those found in anesthetized dosing, while near infrared wavelengths required approximately twice the fluence compared with anesthetized experiments. The performance of the optical tracking system remained highly stable throughout the experiments, and it was found not to influence mortality results for pulse widths up to 25 ms. In general, keeping energy constant while decreasing power and increasing pulse width reduced mortality levels. The results of this study further affirm the practicality of using optical approaches to protect people and crops from flying insects.
Matthew D. Keller, Bryan J. Norton, Phil Rutschman, David J. Farrar, Maclen Marvit, and Artyom Makagon, "Laser dosimetry for disabling anopheles stephensi mosquitoes in-flight
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9706, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXVII, 97060U (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 16, 2016; Published: 26 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213217.4848609622001.
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