Laparoscopic procedures can be an attractive treatment option for liver resection, with a shortened hospital stay and reduced morbidity compared to open surgery. One of the central challenges of this technique is visualisation of concealed structures within the liver, particularly the vasculature and tumourous tissue. As photoacoustic (PA) imaging can provide contrast for haemoglobin in real time, it may be well suited to guiding laparoscopic procedures in order to avoid inadvertent trauma to vascular structures. In this study, a clinical laparoscopic ultrasound probe was used to receive ultrasound for PA imaging and to obtain co-registered B-mode ultrasound (US) images. Pulsed excitation light was delivered to the tissue via a fibre bundle in dark-field mode. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to optimise the light delivery geometry for imaging targets at depths of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm, and 3D-printed mounts were used to position the fibre bundle relative to the transducer according to the simulation results. The performance of the photoacoustic laparoscope system was evaluated with phantoms and tissue models. The clinical potential of hybrid PA/US imaging to improve the guidance of laparoscopic surgery is discussed.
Emma R. Hill, Wenfeng Xia, Daniil I. Nikitichev, Kurinchi Gurusamy, Paul C. Beard, David J. Hawkes, Brian R. Davidson, and Adrien E. Desjardins, "Interventional multi-spectral photoacoustic imaging in laparoscopic surgery," Proc. SPIE 9708, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2016, 97080B (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 15 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2208428.
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