In this study, we present some examples of waveform engineering applications in frequency-domain photoacoustics (PA). An example of using linear frequency modulation (LFM) for PA spectroscopy is the capability of simultaneous probing/imaging with multiple wavelengths. Use of mismatched coded waveforms enables encoding the signal sources and, therefore, facilitates simultaneous probing and imaging. This method enables high frame rate functional imaging with reduced motion artifacts. Furthermore, it is shown than that phase of the PA cross-correlation induced with a LFM can yield the absolute absorption coefficient of the chromophores. This method is not affected by fluence attenuation or variation due to the absorption and scattering of the overlayer material.
Bahman Lashkari, Sung soo (Sean) Choi, Edem Dovlo, and Andreas Mandelis, "Photoacoustic cross-correlation high-frame-rate and phase spectroscopy: two new biomedical imaging modalities," Proc. SPIE 9708, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2016, 97081J (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 16, 2016; Published: 15 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214159.
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