In the last few years Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy witnessed a mutation from tool for imaging cellular structures in living animals deeper than other high-resolution techniques, into an instrument for monitoring functionality and even stimulating or inhibiting inter-cellular signalling. This paradigm shift has been enabled primarily by the development of genetically encoded probes like Ca indicators (GECI) and Opsins for optogenetics inhibition and stimulation. These developments will hopefully enable the understanding of how local network of hundreds or thousands of neurons operate in response to actual tasks or induced stimuli. Imaging, monitoring signals and activating neurons, all on a millisecond time scale, requires new laser tools providing a combination of wavelengths, higher powers and operating regimes different from the ones traditionally used for classic multiphoton imaging. The other key development in multiphoton techniques relates to potential diagnostic and clinical applications where non-linear imaging could provide all optical marker-free replacement of H and E techniques and even intra-operative guidance for procedures like cancer surgery. These developments will eventually drive the development of specialized laser sources where compact size, ease of use, beam delivery and cost are primary concerns. In this talk we will discuss recent laser product developments targeting the various applications of multiphoton imaging, as fiber lasers and other new type of lasers gradually gain popularity and their own space, side-by-side or as an alternative to conventional titanium sapphire femtosecond lasers.
Marco Arrigoni and Darryl McCoy, "Advanced femtosecond lasers enable new developments in non-linear imaging and functional studies in neuroscience, biology and medical applications
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9712, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XVI, 971212 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 16, 2016; Published: 27 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214986.4848767245001.
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