Focal Modulation microscopy (FMM) is a novel imaging technique offering enhanced optical sectioning. FMM introduces spatiotemporal phase modulation in the illumination beam, resulting in intensity modulated excitation and emission light. As the background fluorescence excited by scattered photons are stationary, it is possible to differentiate it from the signal. Currently we are exploring a high-speed implementation of FMM. We have developed line scan focal modulated microscopy, which features parallel illumination and parallel detection. An imaging speed of 100 frames per second achieved with such a prototype. We have conducted a series of experiments to compare the performances of line-scan FMM, line-scan confocal microscopy, and point-scanning confocal microscopy. It is evident that line-scan FMM provides the best solution for a combination of high-speed, high contrast, and high spatial resolution.
Nanguang Chen and Shilpa Pant, "Line-scan focal modulation microscopy: a comparison study
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9713, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXIII, 971308 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 27 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2212710.4848767603001.
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