Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. The slow growth rate of Mtb limits progress toward understanding tuberculosis including diagnosis of infections and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Development of near-infrared (NIR) β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic substrate has made a significant breakthrough in the whole-animal imaging to detect Mtb infection. The reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) system using a BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrate has improved the detection sensitivity in whole-animal optical imaging down to ~104 colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria, about 100-fold improvement over recombinant strains. However, improvement of detection sensitivity is strongly needed for clinical diagnosis of early stage infection at greater tissue depth. In order to improve detection sensitivity, we have integrated a fiber-based microendoscpe into a whole-animal imaging system to transmit the excitation light from the fiber bundle to the fluorescent target directly and measure fluorescent level using BlaC-specific REF substrate in the mouse lung. REF substrate, CNIR800, was delivered via aerosol route to the pulmonary infected mice with M. bovis BCG strain at 24 hours post-infection and groups of mice were imaged at 1–4 hours post-administration of the substrate using the integrated imaging system. In this study we evaluated the kinetics of CNIR800 substrate using REF technology using the integrated imaging system. Integration of these technologies has great promise for improved detection sensitivity allowing pre-clinical imaging for evaluation of new therapeutic agents.
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D. Cirillo, and Kristen C. Maitland, "Whole-animal imaging of bacterial infection using endoscopic excitation of β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic probe," Proc. SPIE 9715, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 97150H (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 16, 2016; Published: 4 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213820.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon