Endoscopy can be used to obtain high-resolution images at large depths in biological tissues. Usually endoscopic devices have a diameter ranging from 1 to few millimeters. Using digital phase conjugation, it is possible to adapt ultrathin multimode fibers to endoscopic purposes. Recently, we demonstrated that a 330 μm diameter, water-filled silica capillary waveguide can guide high frequency ultrasound waves through a 3 cm thick fat layer, allowing optical resolution photoacoustic imaging. Here we demonstrate that using digital phase conjugation, the same water-filled capillary waveguide (3 cm long) can be used as an endoscopic probe to obtain both fluorescence and optical resolution photoacoustic imaging, with no optical or acoustic elements at the tip of the waveguide. We study the consequences of using digital phase conjugation combined with a capillary waveguide and we conclude with possible future improvements of our endoscopic approach.
Nicolino Stasio, Atsushi Shibukawa, Ioannis N. Papadopoulos, Salma Farahi, Olivier Simandoux, Jean-Pierre Huignard, Emmanuel Bossy, Christophe Moser, and Demetri Psaltis, "Fluorescence and optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging through capillary waveguides," Proc. SPIE 9717, Adaptive Optics and Wavefront Control for Biological Systems II, 97171H (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 15 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213303.
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