A CMOS image sensor using high-speed lock-in pixels for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy is presented in this paper. The effective SRS signal from the stimulated emission of SRS mechanism is very small in contrast to the offset of a probing laser source, which is in the ratio of 10-4 to 10-5. In order to extract this signal, the common offset component is removed, and the small difference component is sampled using switched-capacitor integrator with a fully differential amplifier. The sampling is performed over many integration cycles to achieve appropriate amplification. The lock-in pixels utilizes high-speed lateral electric field charge modulator (LEFM) to demodulate the SRS signal which is modulated at high-frequency of 20MHz. A prototype chip is implemented using 0.11μm CMOS image sensor technology.
DeXing Lioe, Kamel Mars, Taishi Takasawa, Keita Yasutomi, Keiichiro Kagawa, Mamoru Hashimoto, and Shoji Kawahito, "A CMOS image sensor using high-speed lock-in pixels for stimulated Raman scattering," Proc. SPIE 9720, High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management, 97200J (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 7 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213906.
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