Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces.
In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.
Prasana K. Sahoo, Alessandro Cavalli, Vitor B. Pelegati, Duber M. Murillo, Alessandra A. Souza, Carlos L. Cesar, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, and Monica A. Cotta, "A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9721, Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XIII, 97210C (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 17, 2016; Published: 27 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213764.4848770130001.
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