Dense inorganic nanoparticles have recently been identified as promising radiosensitizers. In addition to dose enhancement through increased attenuation of ionizing radiation relative to biological tissue, scintillating nanoparticles can transfer energy to coupled photosensitizers to amplify production of reactive oxygen species, as well as provide UVvisible emission for optical imaging. Lanthanum fluoride is a transparent material that is easily prepared as nanocrystals, and which can provide radioluminescence at a number of wavelengths through simple substitution of lanthanum ions with other luminescent lanthanides. We have prepared lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles doped with cerium, terbium, or both, that have good spectral overlap with chlorine6 or Rose Bengal photosensitizer molecules. We have also developed a strategy for stable conjugation of the photosensitizers to the nanoparticle surface, allowing for high energy transfer efficiencies on a per molecule basis. Additionally, we have succeeded in making our conjugates colloidally stable under physiological conditions. Here we present our latest results, using nanoparticles and nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates to demonstrate radiation dose enhancement in B16 melanoma cells. The effects of nanoparticle treatment prior to 250 kVp x-ray irradiation were investigated through clonogenic survival assays and cell cycle analysis. Using a custom apparatus, we have also observed scintillation of the nanoparticles and conjugates under the same conditions that the cell samples are irradiated.
Konstantin Kudinov, Devesh Bekah, Daniel Cooper, Sathvik Shastry, Colin Hill, Stephen Bradforth, and Jay Nadeau, "Lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles for radiosensitization of tumors," Proc. SPIE 9722, Colloidal Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications XI, 97220V (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 22 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213374.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon