The ability to quantify oxygen in vivo in 3D with high spatial and temporal resolution is invaluable for many areas of the biomedical science, including ophthalmology, neuroscience, cancer and stem biology. An optical method based on oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence is being developed, that allows quantitative minimally invasive real-time imaging of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue.
In the past, dendritically protected phosphorescent oxygen probes with controllable quenching parameters and defined bio-distributions have been developed. More recently our probe strategy has extended to encompass two-photon excitable oxygen probes, which brought about first demonstrations of two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen in vivo, providing new valuable information for neuroscience and stem cell biology. However, current two-photon oxygen probes suffer from a number of limitations, such as low brightness and high cost of synthesis, which dramatically reduce imaging performance and limit usability of the method.
Here we present an approach to new bright phosphorescent chromophores with internally enhanced two-photon absorption cross-sections, which pave a way to novel proves for 2PLM. In addition to substantial increase in performance, the new probes can be synthesized by much more efficient methods, thereby greatly reducing the cost of the synthesis and making the technique accessible to a broader range of researchers across different fields.
Tatiana V. Esipova and Sergei A. Vinogradov, "Two-photon absorbing porphyrins for oxygen microscopy
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9723, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications VIII, 972306 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 27 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2215011.4848770188001.
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