The ability to quantify oxygen in vivo in 3D with high spatial and temporal resolution is much needed in many areas of biological research. Our laboratory has been developing the phosphorescence quenching technique for biological oximetry - an optical method that possesses intrinsic microscopic capability. In the past we have developed dendritically protected oxygen probes for quantitative imaging of oxygen in tissue. More recently we expanded our design on special two-photon enhanced phosphorescent probes. These molecules brought about first demonstrations of the two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen in vivo, providing new information for neouroscience and stem cell biology. However, current two-photon oxygen probes suffer from a number of limitations, such as sub-optimal brightness and high cost of synthesis, which dramatically reduce imaging performance and limit usability of the method. In this paper we discuss principles of 2PLM and address the interplay between the probe chemistry, photophysics and spatial and temporal imaging resolution. We then present a new approach to brightly phosphorescent chromophores with internally enhanced two-photon absorption cross-sections, which pave a way to a new generation of 2PLM probes.
Sergei A. Vinogradov and Tatiana V. Esipova, "Phosphorescent probes for two-photon microscopy of oxygen
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9723, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications VIII, 972307 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 27 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214996.4848770189001.
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