Conventional nanotechnology based on the lithography and scanning probe microscopy is limited to 2D fabrication and modification. Here, I will talk about the method for 3D laser fabrication with two-photon polymerization , two-photon isomerization , and two-photon photo-reduction . Self-growth technology, such as self-grown fiber structures of polymer  and self-grown metallic fractal metamaterials structures  will be also discussed.
Satoshi Kawata, "Optical 3D Nano-fabrication: Drawing or Growing? (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9738, Laser 3D Manufacturing III, 973802 (Presented at SPIE LASE: February 17, 2016; Published: 9 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2236681.4775809749001.
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