We develop theoretical model based on a general thermodynamic theory of the stress-composition interaction. The electromechanical responses are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and bending displacement measurements. The model takes into account the electrochemical stress due to the intercalation (de-intercalation) process which generates the strain and bending of the actuators. The relationship between the strains and the real part of the complex capacitance by introducing the strain-capacitance coefficient ξC was analyzed.
Hyacinthe Randriamahazaka and Kinji Asaka, "General thermodynamic theory of the stress-composition interaction for bucky-gel electrochemical actuators," Proc. SPIE 9798, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2016, 97980Z (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: March 23, 2016; Published: 15 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2218807.
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