A new technological platform aimed at making prototypes and feasibility studies has been setup at STMicroelectronics using 300mm wafer foundry facilities. The technology, called DAPHNE (Datacom Advanced PHotonic Nanoscale Environment), is devoted at developing and evaluating new devices and sub-systems in particular for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications and ring resonator based applications. Developed in the course of PLAT4MFP7 European project, DAPHNE is a flexible platform that fits perfectly R&D needs. The fabrication flow enables the processing of photonic integrated circuits using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) of 300nm, partial etches of 150nm and 50nm and a total silicon etching. Consequently, two varieties of rib waveguides and one strip waveguide can be fabricated simultaneously with auto-alignment properties. The process variability on the 150nm partially etched silicon and the thin 50nm slab region are both less than 6 nm. Using a variety of different implantation configurations and a back-end of line of 5 metal layers, active devices are fabricated both in germanium and silicon. An available far back-end of line process consists of making 20 μm diameter copper posts on top of the electrical pads so that an electronic integrated circuit can be bonded on top the photonic die by 3D integration. Besides having those fabrication process options, DAPHNE is equipped with a library of standard cells for optical routing and multiplexing. Moreover, typical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on silicon pn junctions are also available for optical signal modulation. To achieve signal detection, germanium photodetectors also exist as standard cells. The measured single-mode propagation losses are 3.5 dB/cm for strip, 3.7 dB/cm for deep-rib (50nm slab) and 1.4 dB/cm for standard rib (150nm slab) waveguides. Transition tapers between different waveguide structures are as low as 0.006 dB.
Charles Baudot, Antonio Fincato, Daivid Fowler, Diego Perez-Galacho, Aurélie Souhaité, Sonia Messaoudène, Romuald Blanc, Claire Richard, Jonathan Planchot, Come De-Buttet, Bastien Orlando, Fabien Gays, Cécilia Mezzomo, Emilie Bernard, Delphine Marris-Morini, Laurent Vivien, Christophe Kopp, and Frédéric Boeuf, "DAPHNE silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications," Proc. SPIE 9891, Silicon Photonics and Photonic Integrated Circuits V, 98911D (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 06, 2016; Published: 13 May 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2229035.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon