Metamaterials offer an alternative perspective for the design of new materials and devices. The advantage of the metamaterial description is that certain device solutions can more easily be recognized. Here, we discuss broadly the impact of the metamaterial design philosophy on quasi-optical apertures based on patterned holographic metasurfaces. In a guided wave format, in which radiating complementary metamaterial irises are patterned on the upper plate of a microstrip or parallel plate waveguide, the reference wave is equivalent to the guided wave and the entire structure becomes a compact, efficient holographic, aperture antenna. We have developed a millimeter-wave imaging system that makes use of a set of complementary metamaterial waveguide panels to form a frequency-diverse aperture. In this context, the metamaterial aperture produces a complex radiation pattern that varies spatially as a function of the driving frequency; a frequency sweep over a selected bandwidth thus illuminates a region of space with a set of distinct radiation patterns. Collecting the returned signal reflected by illuminated objects within the scene, a set of measurements can be made from which an image of the scene can be reconstructed. This imaging application provides a useful example of the introduction, integration and optimization of a metamaterial aperture into a complete system, where all other aspects of the system—including algorithms, calibration, software and electronics—must be tailored for the particulars of the metamaterial component. As metamaterials transition from science to technology, these aspects may prove just as challenging and interesting as the underlying metamaterial components.
David R. Smith, "Holographic metasurface systems for beam-forming and imaging
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9918, Metamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2016, 99181L (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 31, 2016; Published: 9 November 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2239409.5159106966001.
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