The promise of metamaterials lies in the realization of desirable electromagnetic functionalities simply through tailoring the geometric structure and deliberate arrangement of metal/dielectric building blocks (meta-atoms) to yield envisaged material properties that may be difficult or impossible to accomplish using natural materials. Integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures further extends switchable and frequency tunable functionalities through applying an external stimulus such as temperature change, photoexcitation, and voltage bias. Among them electrically switchable metamaterials are of particular interest for a host of applications. In this work we present our recent progress in this direction. More specifically, hybrid terahertz metamaterials can be formed through integrating semiconducting Schottky junctions into the metallic resonators, enabling highly efficient, electrically switchable resonant response. Such hybrid terahertz metamaterials can be applied in creating terahertz spatial light modulators and active diffraction gratings. Furthermore, graphene can be used to extend the active metamaterials to the mid-infrared frequency range.
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