Nanotechnology has been developed for decades and many interesting optical properties have been demonstrated. However, the major hurdle for the further development of nanotechnology depends on finding economic ways to fabricate such nanostructures in large-scale. Here, we demonstrate how to achieve low-cost fabrication using nanosphere-related techniques, such as Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) and Nanospherical-Lens Lithography (NLL).
NSL is a low-cost nano-fabrication technique that has the ability to fabricate nano-triangle arrays that cover a very large area. NLL is a very similar technique that uses polystyrene nanospheres to focus the incoming ultraviolet light and exposure the underlying photoresist (PR) layer. PR hole arrays form after developing. Metal nanodisk arrays can be fabricated following metal evaporation and lifting-off processes. Nanodisk or nano-ellipse arrays with various sizes and aspect ratios are routinely fabricated in our research group.
We also demonstrate we can fabricate more complicated nanostructures, such as nanodisk oligomers, by combining several other key technologies such as angled exposure and deposition, we can modify these methods to obtain various metallic nanostructures. The metallic structures are of high fidelity and in large scale. The metallic nanostructures can be transformed into semiconductor nanostructures and be used in several green technology applications.
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