From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2016
Optical processes that rely on second-order nonlinear optical effects such as second harmonic generation and
optical parametric amplification require the use of non-centrosymmetric crystals (NCCs). Recently it has been
reported that femtosecond lasers can be used to precipitate NCCs within supersaturated glasses, forming
waveguide structures . During laser writing, a combination of thermal gradients together with the laser
polarization, cause the alignment of the polar axis of the NCC along the writing direction. Femtosecond
precipitation of NCCs in glass has the potential to be a lower-cost alternative to other methods of achieving NCC
waveguiding structures. In this study a widely used ferroelectric NCC, Lithium Niobate, was precipitated in
33LiO2-33Nb2O5-34SiO2 (mol%) (LNS) glass, forming crystalline aligned channels within the amorphous glassy
matrix. The precipitated lithium niobate was characterized and the structural orientation determined. The
waveguiding characteristics were measured for several conditions to determine optimal power and writing speed.
This procedure was then modified to optimize the precipitated 1-D structures for photonic and holographic
C. M. Liebig, J. Goldstein, S. A. McDaniel, E. Glaze, D. Krein, and G. Cook, "Femtosecond laser precipitation of non-centrosymmetric crystals in glasses," Proc. SPIE 9958, Photonic Fiber and Crystal Devices: Advances in Materials and Innovations in Device Applications X, 995805 (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 28, 2016; Published: 7 September 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2237171.
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