From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2016
The approach can be seen as the optical transposition of what is done in electronics, when a system is fed with a white noise (the input signal autocorrelation is a Diract-delta) and the autocorrelation of the the output signal is then taken, thus yielding the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the system (which is the Fourier Transform of the MTF). In the realm of optics, the tricky task consists in the generation and handling of such a suitable random noise, which must be produced via scattering. Ideally, pure 2D white noise (random superposition of sinusoidal intensity modulation at all spatial frequencies in all the diractions) would be produced by ideal point-like scatterers illuminated with completely coherent radiation: interference between scattered waves would generate high-frequency fringes, realizing the sought noise signal. Practically, limited scatterer size and limited coherence properties of radiation introduce a limitation in the spatial bandwidth of the illuminating field. Whereas information about particle-size effect can be promptly obtained from the form factor of the sample used, which is very well known in the case of spherical particles, the information about beam coherence, in general, is usally not known with adequate accuracy, especially at the x-ray wavelengths. In the particular configuration used, speckles are produced by interfering the scattered waves with the strong transmitted beam, (heterodyne speckles), contrarily to the very common case where speckles are produced by the mutual interference between scattered waves (without any transmitted beam acting as local oscillator) (homodyne speckles). In the end the use of an heterodyne speckle field, thanks to its self-referencing scheme, allows to gather, at a fixed distance, response curves spanning a wide range of wavevectors. By crossing the info from curves acquired at few distances (e.g. 2-3) , it is possible to experimentally separate the contribution of spurious effects (such as limited coherence), in order to identify the spectral component, due to the response of the test system, which is the responsible of the broadening of the optical input signal.
Michele Manfredda and Marzio Giglio, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of x-ray scintillators via heterodyne speckles
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9961, Reflection, Scattering, and Diffraction from Surfaces V, 99610H (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 29, 2016; Published: 2 November 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2240116.5170919152001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon