From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2016
The success of the LCLS led to an interest across a number of disciplines in the scientific community including physics,
chemistry, biology, and material science. Fueled by this success, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a
new high repetition rate free electron laser, LCLS-II, a superconducting linear accelerator capable of a repetition rate up
to 1 MHz. Undulators will be optimized for 200 to 1300 eV soft X-rays, and for 1000 to 5000 eV hard X-rays. To
absorb spontaneous radiation, higher harmonic energies and deflect the x-ray beam to various end stations, the transport
and diagnostics system includes grazing incidence plane mirrors on both the soft and Hard X-ray beamline.
To deliver the FEL beam with minimal power loss and wavefront distortion, we need mirrors of height errors below 1nm
rms in operational conditions. We need to mitigate the thermal load effects due to the high repetition rate. The absorbed
thermal profile is highly dependent on the beam divergence, and this is a function of the photon energy. To address this
complexity, we developed a mirror cradle with variable length cooling and first order curve correction. Mirror figure
error is minimized using variable length water-cooling through a gallium-indium eutectic bath. Curve correction is
achieved with an off-axis bender that will be described in details.
We present the design features, mechanical analysis and results from optical and mechanical tests of a prototype
assembly, with particular regards to the figure sensitivity to bender corrections.
Corey L. Hardin, Venkat N. Srinivasan, Lope Amores, Nicholas M. Kelez, Daniel S. Morton, Peter M. Stefan, Josep Nicolas, Lin Zhang, and Daniele Cocco, "Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs," Proc. SPIE 9965, Adaptive X-Ray Optics IV, 996505 (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 28, 2016; Published: 27 October 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2235825.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon