From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2016
A hybrid annealed proton exchange (APE) waveguide with a vertically integrated arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) waveguide on a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate is used to create an optical phased array (OPA) that allows for the non-mechanical steering of 1550 nm light on an integrated optic platform. The high electro-optic coefficient of the x-cut y-propagating LiNbO3 (r33 = 30.8 pm/V) is utilized by electrode structures fabricated on the LiNbO3 substrate to create a low-power, lowloss beam steering with high-speed bandwidths, capable of 10 GHz and larger as demonstrated by commercial LiNbO3 modulators. The As2S3 waveguide is introduced because of its high refractive index, which leads to a highly confined optical mode. Design and fabrication are presented for a large full width steering angle of 34°, representing an order of magnitude improvement over low-confinement, diffused LiNbO3 waveguides and two orders of magnitude improvement over other reported LiNbO3 OPAs.
Dwayne D. Macik and Christi K. Madsen, "Fabrication of LiNbO3-As2S3 waveguides for beam steering applications," Proc. SPIE 9970, Optics and Photonics for Information Processing X, 99700H (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 29, 2016; Published: 14 September 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2237806.
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