The shock plasma waves in Si MOS, InGaAs and GaN HEMTs are launched at a relatively small THz power that is
nearly independent of the THz input frequency for short channel (22 nm) devices and increases with frequency for
longer (100 nm to 1 mm devices). Increasing the gate-to-channel separation leads to a gradual transition of the nonlinear
waves from the shock waves to solitons. The mathematics of this transition is described by the Korteweg-de Vries
equation that has the single propagating soliton solution.
S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, "Plasma shock waves excited by THz radiation," Proc. SPIE 9993, Millimetre Wave and Terahertz Sensors and Technology IX, 99930D (Presented at SPIE Security + Defence: September 29, 2016; Published: 21 October 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2241984.
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