Organic materials that exhibit large real third-order optical nonlinearities, |Re(χ(3))|, and that also have low linear and nonlinear losses at telecommunication wavelengths may be useful for a range of all-optical signal-processing (AOSP) applications. Based on their solution linear and nonlinear optical characteristics, polymethine dyes in general, and chalcogenopyrylium-terminated heptamethines in particular, are a promising class of materials for AOSP, but the translation of their microscopic nonlinearity to device-relevant materials is hindered by significant aggregation of the molecules in high-chromophore density films. An approach to minimize aggregation these dyes, in which bulky and rigidly out-of-plane groups are introduced both in the center of the polymethine bridge and on the heterocyclic end groups, has been developed and can lead to thin-film materials exhibiting combinations of large |Re(χ(3))|, large two-photon figure-of-merit, and low linear loss that are suitable for AOSP.
 Hales J. M., Matichak J., Barlow S., Ohira S., Yesudas K., Brédas J.-L., Perry J. W. and S. R. Marder, Science, 2010, 327, 1485.
 Barlow S., Brédas J.-L., Getmanenko Y. A., Gieseking R. L., Hales J.M., Kim H., Marder S.R., Perry J. W., Risko C., Zhang Y., Materials Horizons, 2014, 1, 17.
Seth R. Marder, Iryna Davydenko, Yulia A. Getmanenko, Janos Simon, Yadong Zhang, Joel M. Hales, Hyeongeu Kim, Taylor Allen, San-Hui Chi, Victor Khrustalev, Evgheni V. Jucov, Tatiana V. Timofeeva, Timothy C. Parker, Stephen Barlow, and Joseph W. Perry, "Materials for third order nonlinear optics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9994, Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XIII, 999409 (Presented at SPIE Security + Defence: September 28, 2016; Published: 15 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2244673.5229530550001.
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