There are several problems that must be solved in order to increase the distance of quantum communication protocols based on photons as an information carriers. One of them is the dispersion, whose effects can be minimized by engineering spectral properties of transmitted photons. In particular, it is expected that positively correlated photon pairs can be very useful. We present the full characterization of a source of single photon pairs at a telecom wavelength based on type II spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process in a beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. In the type II process, a pump photon, which is polarized extraordinarily, splits in a nonlinear medium into signal and idler photons, which are polarized perpendicularly to each other. In order for the process to be efficient a phase matching condition must be fulfilled. These conditions originate from momentum and energy conservation rules and put severe restrictions on source parameters. Seemingly, these conditions force the photon pair to be negatively correlated in their spectral domain. However, it is possible to achieve positive correlation for pulsed pumping. The experimentally available degrees of freedom of a source are the width of the pumping beam, the collected modes’ widths, the length of the nonlinear crystal and the duration of the pumping pulse. In our numerical model we use the following figures of merit: the pair production rate, the efficiency of photon coupling into a single mode fiber, the spectral correlation of the coupled photon pair. The last one is defined as the Pearson correlation parameter for a joint spectral distribution. The aim here is to find the largest positive spectral correlation and the highest coupling efficiency.
By resorting to the numerical model Ref.  we showed in Ref. , that by careful adjustment of the pump’s and the collected modes’ characteristics, one can optimize any of the source's parameters. Our numerical outcomes conform to the experimental results presented in Refs [3,4]. Here we investigate typical, experimentally available source parameters: the widths of the pump beam and collected modes ranging from 20μm to 500m, the crystal length ranging from 1mm to 7.5mm while the pulse duration is set to 50fs, 100fs or 150fs. We achieve the correlation coefficient value as high as approximately 0.8, or – for different values of parameters – coupling efficiency equal to 0.76.
Andrzej Gajewski and Piotr L. Kolenderski, "The analysis of photon pair source at telecom wavelength based on the BBO crystal (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9996, Quantum Information Science and Technology II, 99960J (Presented at SPIE Security + Defence: September 27, 2016; Published: 7 December 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2241513.5229530573001.
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