Investigation of the Doppler shift of radar return from the sea surface is very important for better understanding of capabilities of exploitation of microwave radar for measuring velocities of marine currents. Here new field experiments carried out from a Platform on the Black Sea with a coherent X-band scatterometer, and a Doppler multifrequency (X- /C-/S-band) dual-polarized radar recently designed at IAP RAS are discussed. It is shown that the radar return contains both Bragg (polarized) and non polarized scattering components, presumably giving different contributions to radar Doppler shifts. Radar Doppler shifts were estimated using two different definitions as a) a frequency of the “centre of gravity” of an instantaneous radar return spectrum (ASIS) averaged over periods of dominant wind waves and b) the “centre of gravity” of the averaged over dominant wave periods spectrum (SAS). The ASIS and SAS values for both VV and HH-polarizations are shown to be different due to effects of radar backscatter modulation by dominant (long) wind waves. The radar Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been analyzed from experimental data and difference between SAS- and ASIS-values has been satisfactory explained using the measured MTF-values. It is obtained that experimental values of ASIS can be satisfactory described by the Bragg model despite the significant contribution of NP component to the radar backscatter. A physical explanation of the effect is given.
S. A. Ermakov, I. A. Kapustin, A. A. Molkov, I. A. Sergievskaya, and O. V. Shomina, "Doppler shifts of radar return from the sea surface," Proc. SPIE 9999, Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2016, 999905 (Presented at SPIE Remote Sensing: September 26, 2016; Published: 19 October 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2241876.
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