The presentation on a two dimensional surface of a single point most descriptive of the values of multiple .uncorrelated parameters of an attribute has presented formidible problems if more than three measures are available. With only three measures, conversion to percentile scores and plotting on triangular cross section paper is frequently adequate. With more than three, involved computational procedures such as multivariate analysis have previously been necessary.
Conventional data analysis presentations of complex data often result in visualization and com prehension problems. A method is required to present data in a form which is quickly and precisely understood by the analyst.
This paper constitutes a report of the efforts of the Coast & Geodetic Survey in the field of computational photogrammetry during the past several. years. The Bureau currently applies the techniques in two related categories: topographic mapping and satellite geodesy. Both require (1) image measure-. ment in the single micron range and (2) considerable computer effort. Two types of comparators are being employed two of the onocular system and one stereocomparator. Three computers have been used in various phases and periods-- the IIM-650, 1620 and 7030 (STRETCH), For topographic work, thesystem applies to aerotriangulation wherein the results are subsequently utilized as geometric control for map compilation with conventional instruments. Resultant precisions of two microns have been experienced, and resultant accuracies vary up to 20 microns (and higher) depending on the reliability of input data glass plates, film, premarked control, lens type, etc. Comments are made relative to future trends in cameras, photographic materials, instruments, numerical analysis and co puters, and on what seems to be the ultimate in accuracy attainable from present systems.
Coherent optical systems are useful in performing, two major operations in the field of data reduction: spectral analysis and linear filtering. The latter operation includes convolution, auto-correlation and cross-correlation. This paper emphasizes some new developments which have bearing on data reduction, while referring only briefly to the theory behind coherent optical systems. Of particular interest is the development of a technique which allows more general operations by linear filtering., Examples of spectral analysis and character recognition will be presented.
The intent of this paper is to present the photo graphic plate reduction procedures being used by ACIC for Project ANNA. The discussion includes a. description of the processes involved in the reduction of photographic plates of a flashing light satellite. These processes include locating the satellite flashed, identifying reference stars, measuring the plates, reducing time tapes and computing the ap parant. position of the satellite flashes.
One of the ever increasing problems of modern technology is the presentation and analysis of the mass of data generated during experimental and theoretical investigations. In the transcription of data, fiber optics can play a significant role due to the comparative ease with which information can be regrouped and digitized. In addition, display devices capable of the simultaneous presentation of a variety of data can be assembled using fiber optics either alone or in combination with standard optical systems,
This paper is a report on the develop ent of a cathoderay technique for a digital and analog display system which processes information contained in data acquired by spacecraft. Outputs are reproduced on 35mm film and include analog AVCS/TV images; alphanumeric and eteorological characters for titling, labeling and tabulation; contours, graphs and other curvilinear material; digitally reconstituted maps or plots of cloud cover and radiometric data
A brief description of the general principles of interferometers and their inherent advantages is presented, where a known stable wavelength of light is used as the unit for linear measurement. Analyses are made for the effects of atmospheric environment, parameters limiting maximum linear range, measuring speed, and vibration.
Two data reduction computer programs at the Atlantic Missile Range are used for the determination of space resection and the associated geodetic transformation. One of these computer programs is called FLAR, for Photogrammetric Flare Tri-angulation, and performs a multiple point in space resection. The other is called BCSR, for Ballistic Camera Space Resection, and performs a single point in space resection. This paper discusses the operation of these two computer programs, together with their capabilities and limitations. Future improvements and techniques are mentioned.
Lincoln Laboratory has developed computer' controlled equipment for automatic reading of data recorded on photographic film. Methods for photographic recording of electrical waveforms associated, with experimental radar equipment are described. Two computer controlled film readers are employed to read this data, one with a resolution of about 106 elements over a one-inch by one-inch square of data. Some factors pertinent to the desi and operation of computer controlled film readers are discussed,.
This paper describes some of the optical-mechani-cal, and electronic instruments currently under development by the Breau of Naval Weapons for aiding the Naval photographic interpreter in extracting data from photography.
Photographic techniques have achieved important results in the study of phenomena associated with this work and developed at Avco-Everett Research Laboratory will be described: (1) a method of deter-mining a missile's re-entry trajectory from a single airborn ballistic camera record, and (2) a spot densi-tometric technique for converting cine photographic records of re-entry bodies to radiant intensity. Samples of data will be shown and the reduction apparatus described.
The author will present a practical reappraisal of available and "soon-to-be" available instruments and readers for photo-optical data reduction. Some aspects of the trade-off between cost and capability will be discussed in terms of a "building-block approach" whereby a modest but versatile system may be installed and expanded as needs require.
Various techniques of photo-optical data reduction are discussed as a function of the type of data generated. An attempt is made to relate speed of reduction, accuracy and cost to planning the acquisition system. Some specific cases are cited and examples shown.
A mathematical model of the emulsion characteristics is developed to determine relative exposure. This is employed to preserve the radially symmetrical geometric structure of a dot produced by iGuassian distributed light from a cathode ray tube with P-11 phosphor. Experimental results will be reported and discussed
Problems and methods of automatic imagery interpretation are reviewed, with emphasis on the case of reconnaissance imagery. A general approach to automatic interpretation is outlined, and important specific techniques are also briefly described.
To inimize confusion over terminology, this paper commences by defining little known, controversial, and the author's terms. In particular it defines subjective, metric, and signature readers, listing different types of each. Accuracy and speed are briefly discussed.