The Oregon State Highway Division has many aids which help highway personnel determine what physical features are present at any location on the more than 7,500 miles of State Highways in Oregon. These aids include as-constructed plans, county maps, right-of-way maps, aerial photographs, mile point logs and straight line charts. The latter, straight line charts, have been prepared for all State Highways and are referenced by a mile-posting system. These charts show such features as structures, pavement type, city limits, and intersecting roads by mile point.
Engineers long ago learned the truth of the saying, "One Picture is Worth a Thousand Words." If we accept this maxim literally, then the 1.3 million photographs which will make up Montana's present primary and interstate highway photolog should be worth 1.3 billion words!
The advent of the National Highway Safety Act of 1966 has stimulated considerable research and development in the field of highway safety throughout our nation. The highway departments of most states, and Arizona is no exception, have placed strong emphasis on developing new systems in Traffic Records, (Standard 10), and Identification and Surveillance of Accident Locations (Standard 9). In Traffic Records, the State of Arizona is developing sophisticated computer systems for managing the several types of data essential to a state's effective traffic safety program. The major data files required are those on motor vehicles, drivers, vehicle accidents, and highways.
Closed circuit television has been in use for a number of years as a means of surveillance in stores, banks, apartment houses, tunnels, freeways and other places where it is desirable to have continuously recorded coverage of the events taking place. There is, however, some disadvantage in monitoring traffic operations by this method since it takes as long to view a video tape as it does to record the data. To make television surveillance more useful to highway engineers, viewing time should be reduced.
This paper discusses the need and de-velopment of equipment to detect wrong way entries into freeway off ramps. The major steps covered are:
* History of development
* Design and application of camera
* Results of information gathered
A description of the logic used in construction of the camera is also discussed.
The traffic engineer responsible for the operation of completed streets, highways and freeways is the busiest man in any large highway organization. He daily faces more problems and more decisions than any other department head. Unfortunately, most of his decisions are based on a few facts, and a lot of intuition - sometimes referred to as experience. Photograpy, and particularly time-lapse photography, can provide more factual information and remove a lot of the intuition from his daily decision making.
Proc. SPIE 0030, Aerial Photographic Instrumentation System For Collection Of Complete Traffic Flow Characteristics Data For Studies In Traffic Flow And Highway Safety, 0000 (1 May 1972); doi: 10.1117/12.953565
To conduct research in Traffic Safety, and to provide an understanding of vehicle and driver performance on high speed streets and highways, researchers frequently turn to the development of models to describe vehicular traffic flow. In order to adequately develop and validate such models, it is necessary to obtain precise and detailed information on traffic flow characteristics. This task, because of the tremendous costs and difficulties associated with it, has been the single greatest impediment to vehicular traffic flow model development efforts. As a result, traffic flow researchers have, with few exceptions, either omitted model validation entirely, or have used data obtained by crude and inadequate methods in superficial attempts at model validation. This report will describe a system of instrumentation that has been developed to overcome these problems and has been used successfully for the precise measurement of traffic flow characteristics. The system, employing both aerial and ground photographic techniques, was developed at the Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, UCLA, under the direction of this author (Ref. 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10), to obtain traffic flow data for a study sponsored by the United States Bureau of Public Roads (Contract CPR 11-4309) concerning the effects of exit ramps on freeway operation and control.
There is an old story - probably familiar to most of you -concerning the group of blindfolded men who were positioned around an elephant. After having had an opportunity to sense the animal from his own particular vantage point, each was asked to describe it. As you will recall, there was a wide difference of opinion which stemmed largely from the "approach" which each took to the assignment.