It is implicitly assumed by those who create, develop, control and deploy new technology, as well as by society at-large, that technological innovation always represents progress. Such an unchallenged assumption precludes an examination and evaluation of the interrelationships and impact the development and use of technology have on larger public policy matters, such as preservation of democratic values, national security and military policies, employment, income and tax policies, foreign policy and the accountability of private corporate entities to society. This brief challenges those assumptions and calls for social control of technology.
The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has recently completed a study of programmable automation (PA) in manufacturing. The study discusses programmable automation technologies, ramifications for industrial structure and competitive conduct, and effects on employment, work environment, and education and training. This paper draws on the OTA analysis of employment issues. The discussion focuses on how and where programmable automation will affect the work force.
Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.
Popular, successful technology contains within itself certain principles which tend to alienate people from technology. A major contributor is user friendly design which produces estrangement by "hiding" the operative technology from the user. This alienation appears to be an irreducible residue of modern technology. This circumstance resonates with the current predominance of technology in our environment to produce a general feeling of estrangement from the world we inhabit. It thus appears prudent to develop strategies for coping with this phenomenon rather than unrealistically planning to eliminate it.
A brief review of some important historical points on the origin of the Factories and the Industrial Revolution is presented with emphasis in the social problems related to the automation of the human labor. Until the World War I, the social changes provoked by the Industrial Revolution caused one division of the World in developed and underdeveloped countries. After that period, the less developed nations began their industrialization mainly through the Multinationals Corporations (MC). These enterprises were very important to the production and exportation of utilities and manufactures in general, mainly in those products which required intensive and direct human labor. At present time, with the pervasiveness of microelectronics in the automation, this age seems to reaching an end because all continous processes in industry tend economicaly toward total automation. This fact will cause a retraction in long-term investments and, beyond massive unemployment, there is a tendency for these MC industries to return to their original countries. The most promising alternative to avoid these events, and perhaps the unique, is to incentive an autonomous development in areas of high technology, as for instance, the microelectronics itself.
The use of computers in organizations is discussed in terms of its present and potential role in facilitating and mediating communication between people. This approach clarifies the impact that computers may have on the operation of organizations and on the individuals comprising them. Communication, which is essential to collaborative activities, must be properly controlled to protect individual and group privacy, which is equally essential. Our understanding of the human and organizational aspects of controlling communication and access to information presently lags behind our technical ability to implement the controls that may be needed.
This paper discusses issues due to the convergence of computer and communications technology and services. The communications services grew out of national and international regulations. Whereas, the computer technology and services developed outside the regulatory domain. The new informatics and telecommunication services are rapidly expanding. They provide new opportunities and challenge by the flow of information. Information is a resource which is not used up by consumption. Besides, it can be enlarged and shared. It is playing an increasingly important role in the socio-economic life. New instruments are being developed to facilitate the flow as well as to protect the information content from misuse. Due to national diversity, an important factor for the continuation of civilization, it is difficult to harmonize the different economic, legal, political and social issues. Therefore, these different systems must work independently as well as interdependently. When selecting national and international instruments, the goal is to keep each society open and its power structure decentralized. This may be accomplished by either regulation or competition of the marketplace, depending on the ideology of the respective society. Each society may chose its own path but all need to agree on the common goal.
Maintaining security of databases and other computer systems requires constraining the behavior of those persons who are able to access these systems so that they do not obtain, alter, or abuse the information contained in these systems. Three types of constraints are available: Physical contraints are obstructions designed to prevent (or at least make difficult) access to data by unauthorized persons; external constraints restrict behavior through threat of detection and punishment; internal constraints are self-imposed limitations on behavior which are derived from a person's moral standards. This paper argues that an effective computer security program will require attention to internal constraints as well as physical and external ones. Recent developments in moral philosophy and the psychology of moral development have given us new understanding of how individuals grow in moral awareness and how this growth can be encouraged. These insights are the foundation for some practical proposals for encouraging morally responsible behavior by computer professionals and others with access to confidential data. The aim of this paper is to encourage computer security professionals to discuss, refine and incorporate systems of internal constraints in developing methods of maintaining security.
The world is becoming increasingly dependent on computers and communications. As these systems become more pervasive, there is a growing concern about the possibility of computer and communications network failure leading to damages for a significant segment of the population and, potentially, to the weakening of social stability. There is disagreement and concern over whether today's increasingly interconnected computer systems are more vulnerable than resilient. This paper reviews the recent international discussions on this issue, identifies known problem areas, and discusses possible ameliorating measures. Finally, it raises a number of related questions which need to be examined.
I know that the organizers fully realized that this session seemed particularly appropriate, not only in the light of events at scientific and engineering meetings in the last few years, the somewhat eager (perhaps even over-eager) administration of the Export Administration Act and the enforcement of the Export Administration regulations, the Arms Export Control Act, and the International Traffic in Arms regulations - but also because it is 1984. We should remember, of course, that George Orwell was not predicting what 1984 would be like but was giving a warning of what could happen if we do not stay alert and cherish and respect our basic freedoms.
The world of science is international in character. American researchers meet and interact with the best researchers from other nations, exchanging ideas and information, so that everyone benefits. Some research workers from unfriendly nations have intruded into this world of friendly scientific competition. They have taken advantage of our openness to obtain sensitive technical information, to the detriment of our national security.
During the period from 1976 to 1979, the Government of France invested perhaps $200 million in an invention that used the echo from a newly-discovered particle to map petroleum deposits from the air. The device, invented by a Belgian count, appeared to be marvellously successful in its initial tests flying over areas that had already been mapped by conventional geologic techniques. French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing, realizing that such an invention could alter the course of history, ordered tight government secrecy to maintain France's lead in this new technology.
In a small book entitled "Public Knowledge, an Essay Concerning the Social Dimension of Science,"* a well-known theoretical physicist, John H. Ziman, points out that science is not "merely published knowledge or information." He argues that "its facts and theories must survive a period of critical study and testing by other competent and interested individuals." It is not until general acceptance has been gained that facts and theories merit the classification as science. Thus to add to the body of knowledge in science requires "a consensus of rational opinion over the widest possible field."**
The President's "star wars" speech last year challenged the most basic premises of the U.S.-Soviet strategic relationship. It has led to the Administration's new strategic defense (ABM) initiative which deserves the most careful examination. Advances in ABM technology will inevitably contribute to advances in anti-satellite technology (ASAT) which is a much simpler technical challenge. Hence policy and restraints in both areas should be coupled to one another. In my statement I will first address the issues raised by the defense initiative; and then ASAT.
Beam weapons constitute one variety of defensive option currently being explored. Two such devices, the neutral particle beam system and the free electron laser, may offer promising additions to layered defense against nuclear missile attack. Such research and development programs reduce the possibility of a devastating surprise and could stabilize international relations as both adversaries can be expected to pursue these paths.
Satellites are vulnerable to the existing Soviet ASAT weapon, to the U.S. ASAT under development, to the large numbers of ICBMs in existence, and to many future threats, including space mines. An ban on ASAT use and test is adequately verifiable to increase U.S. security and to reduce the likelihood of at least one cause of war. The U.S. should move with urgency to negotiate such a ban with the Soviet Union and then with other nations, because the ability efficiently to destroy the satellites of others is less valuable to the U.S. than the reduced threat to our own satellites under a treaty regime.
An amendment to the 1984 Defense Authorization Act prevents testing against objects in space of an American F-15 launched anti-satellite weapon until the President certifies that the testing is necessary to prevent harm to the national security, and that he is willing to negotiate an ASAT treaty with the Soviet Union. This extraordinary action by the Congress was taken because many members of Congress feared that the weapon was being developed without due consideration for its impact on arms control, that temporary technical superiority was being given greater importance than the long-term security of the nation. This increased Congressional scrutiny could have an impact on future weapons development programs. "Now a crucial moment is really coming: Either the interested parties will sit down at the negotiating table without delay to begin drawing up a treaty prohibiting the placement in space of weapons of any kind, or the arms race will spill over into space." YURI ANDROPOV, April 28, 1983, in response to petition from American Scientists.
Recent reports have indicated that an x-ray laser pumped with a nuclear explosion at a wavelength of 1.4 nm (0.9 keV) has made some initial progress. It has been proposed to extend the development of this device to establish it as part of a layered ballistic missile defensive system to protect the United States against a nuclear attack. This paper will discuss the following aspects on the feasibility of this system: (1) Conditions affecting the efficiency of the X-ray laser; (2) Angular resolution and size of,the laser rods; (3) Energy on targets; (4) Basing Modes; (5) Countermeasures; and (6) Legal constraints.
In order to characterize the effects of technological superiority, numerical superiority, and pre-emption on space battle outcomes, we have constructed a battle simulation in which "Red" and "Blue" ASATs, each armed with a specified number of x-ray lasers of specified range, move along specified orbits and fire on one another according to a pair of battle management algorithms. The simulated battle proceeds until apparent steady-state force levels are reached. Battle outcomes are characterized by terminal force ratio and by terminal force-exchange ratio as effective weapon range, multiplicity (x-rasers per ASAT), and pre-emptive role are varied parametrically. A major conclusion is that pre-emptive advantage increases with increasing x-raser range and multiplicity (x-rasers per ASAT) and with increasing force size. That is, the "use 'em or lose 'em" dilemma will become more stark as such weapons are refined and proliferated.