Results of the experimental investigation of Kumakhov polycapillary lenses at K(alpha ) lines of Cr, Cu, Mo, Ag are presented. The main parameters of more than 20 lenses, namely, transmission, its dependence on the energy and capture angles, distribution of intensity in the lens focal spots, and dependence of the focal spots on the energy, were investigated. It is noted, that the level of the lens manufacturing achieved at the Institute for Roentgen Optics is very high.
Results of the investigation of Kumakhov microfocus lenses are considered. Tests have been performed at CuK(alpha ) and MoK(alpha ) lines. It was experimentally shown, that combination such lenses with a small power x-ray tubes permits to obtain concentration of the monochromatic photons in the lens focal spot of the order of 3 (DOT) 10-6 photons/sec(DOT)micrometers 2. It is comparable with density of radiation from synchrotrons in the secondary generation.
The review of experimental research on transmission of soft X-ray radiation (approximately 1.5 keV) by capillary structures for synchrotron radiation beam of the S-60 accelerator is presented. The main synchrotron parameters and characteristics of synchrotron radiation beam in addition to a description of the layout, the parameters of the capillary structures studied, the procedure of objects' alignment and radiation detection are given. A brief comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical data is argued. The requirements to the experimental setup and the use of similar structures for synchrotron radiation beams of X-ray range are discussed.
The procedure of capillary lens alignment is described in detail. The theoretical basis of capillary optics is given in the framework of a comparative analysis of monocapillary and polycapillary optics. The results of x-ray distribution scanning behind the capillary lens for various angle planes, together with the fitting results, are presented. A qualitative explanation is given for the discrepancy between the expected and observed divergences of x-ray beams transmitted by the capillary lens.
The reflection of beam of bremstrahlung gamma radiation from the macroscopically smooth surface has been investigated. First results of the test performed on the base of microtron are presented. Effects of the gamma quanta reflection were observed by inclination of the reflector surface with respect to the beam axis.
In this paper influence of Kumakhov halflenses and lenses form on their optical characteristics (transmission, angular radiation distribution, and intensity distribution in focal spot) is investigated. Transmission of x-rays radiation through capillaries with various curvature radius is also considered.
Propagation of the soft x-rays, which have been generated by a small-diameter incoherent source, through the straight and tapered plane capillaries is studied using the Fresnel- Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The diffraction and interference are manifested by appearance of the diffraction fringes in the far-field zone of the capillary output. The experimental data presented in the paper confirms such behavior of the x-ray radiation.
In the paper a theoretical model for calculation of x-ray photons characteristics under passage through capillary systems is developed. The model is based on analytical and numerical solutions of a wave equation. It is shown that recently discovered interference effect under multiple reflection of x-rays is a display of wave properties of x- rays. In this report an explanation of the observed phenomenon is given.
X-ray integral intensity and fluence density of a quasiparallel x-ray beam obtained by use of microfocus tube in combination with a new type of capillary halflens with record focal distance approximately 4 mm have been investigated. Maximal incoming flux of x-ray quanta was 1013 pulse/sec, and integral intensity of a quasiparallel x-rays from the halflens was approximately 4 (DOT) 107 pulse/sec.
The possibility to bend intense beams of thermal neutrons by means of polycapillary structures is discussed. Theoretical calculations showed how neutron beams may be bent at large angles, through short distances, using multi channel capillary devices. Experimental results on thermal neutron bending by a bender device made by many capillaries are presented and discussed.
In this manuscript an analysis of the transmission of x-rays through a single monocapillary under the single reflection regime is presented and discussed. Because ray tracing does not allow to explain the experimental data, a first qualitative interpretation of the observed behavior is given in the framework of the wave theory.
Antiscatter grid made from glass capillaries was proposed by our group in 1991. Now several tens grids for mammography have been made. Preliminary results of investigation of such a grid are published for the first time. Further development of the capillary grid production technology will allow to decrease sharply the patient dose, and to obtain a high contrast image of the object under investigation. Experimental results of measurement the capillary grid's parameters in comparison with the same parameters of the commercial antiscatter grids are presented.
This work describes design of a new type of antiscatter x- ray grids in mammography. A comparison of the proposed grid and conventional grids was made. The results show that it will be possible by use an ideal glass capillary grids to reduce the patient dose and to increase the image contrast by a factor approximately 2 as compared to the case without grid.
A capillary focusing system has been installed to the experimental station of the SR source at the S-60 LPI (Moscow) dedicated to time-resolved optical luminescence of solid state materials excited by soft X-ray radiation of about 1 keV. We have demonstrated that the sensitivity of the detector as well as the spectral resolution of the analyzing monochromator have been strongly enhanced by capillary lens focusing the soft X-ray radiation in a tiny spot to the sample with a considerable enhancement of the photon flux compared with the unfocused synchrotron radiation beam.
The experimental investigation of passing the focused x-ray beams through the water phantoms imitating a biological tissue has been performed. Focusing of the radiation is carried out by means of Kumakhov lenses. The possibility of efficient using the capillary lenses in the ray therapy is shown. Prospects of the application of Kumakhov lenses in therapy of melanoma, oncological eye diseases, etc. are discussed.
An energy dispersive XRF spectrometer equipped with a capillary lens having a spot size of 200 micrometers has been developed in the Institute of Roentgen Optics. A compact semiconductor Si-PIN detector with thermoelectric cooling is used to realize a portable instrument assembled in a carrying case. Some applications and examples of analyses are given.
Main optical characteristics of Kumakhov x-ray systems (lenses, halflenses) were studied by means of coordinate metrological stand. Angular convergence and divergence of radiation, diffraction reflection of x-ray beams from monochromator versus angular divergence of halflenses have been investigated.