This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE
Proceedings Volume 7023, including the Title Page, Copyright
information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and the
Conference Committee listing.
Many physicists limit oneself to an instrumentalist description of quantum phenomena and ignore the problems of
foundation and interpretation of quantum mechanics. This instrumentalist approach results to "specialization barbarism"
and mass delusion concerning the problem, how a quantum computer can be made. The idea of quantum computation
can be described within the limits of quantum formalism. But in order to understand how this idea can be put into
practice one should realize the question: "What could the quantum formalism describe?", in spite of the absence of an
universally recognized answer. Only a realization of this question and the undecided problem of quantum foundations
allows to see in which quantum systems the superposition and EPR correlation could be expected. Because of the
"specialization barbarism" many authors are sure that Bell proved full impossibility of any hidden-variables
interpretation. Therefore it is important to emphasize that in reality Bell has restricted to validity limits of the no-hidden-variables
proof and has shown that two-state quantum system can be described by hidden variables. The later means that
no experimental result obtained on two-state quantum system can prove the existence of superposition and violation of
the realism. One should not assume before unambiguous experimental evidence that any two-state quantum system is
quantum bit. No experimental evidence of superposition of macroscopically distinct quantum states and of a quantum bit
on base of superconductor structure was obtained for the present. Moreover same experimental results can not be
described in the limits of the quantum formalism.
We consider dynamics of hidden variables for measurements in a generalized bell-type model for a single spin
using natural assumptions. The evolution of the system, which can be expressed as dynamic chaos is studied.
The equilibrium state that the system evolves to asymptotically is consistent with the predictions of quantum
It is shown that relative coordinate and momentum of coherent electron pair have the meaning of observables
with the help of quadrupole and magnetic moments. Distributions of quadrupole terms of scalar potential are
shown. These distributions have nonclassical properties.
We consider a procedure of measurement of a quantum system in case when its dimension and the dimension
of the basis of a measuring device relate as ratio of integer numbers. This procedure of measurement is introduced
here as a "procedure of measurement in different-dimensional bases". We develop a new mathematical formalism
describing this kind of measurement. It is demonstrated that when the dimension of the system is divisible by the
dimension of basis for the measuring instrument, our results coincide with conventional theoretical developments.
We consider measurement in different-dimensional bases as a kind of unsharp measurement.
To study the properties of the probabilistic bits the geometric approach is preferable. In this approach
the projective interpretation of the Hilbert space as the space of rays is used. This model can be employed
for simulating Bi-photons, qubits, EPR states and entanglement. The other example concerns the entangled
envelope solitons in Kerr dielectric with cubic nonlinearity, where we use two-solitons configurations for
modeling the entangled states of photons.
We show that (in contrast to rather common opinion) the domain of applications of the mathematical formalism
of quantum mechanics is not restricted to physics. This formalism can be applied to the description of various
quantum-like (QL) information processing. In particular, the calculus of quantum (and more general QL)
probabilities can be used to explain some paradoxical statistical data which was obtained in psychology and
cognitive science. We consider the QL description of prisoners dilemma (PD) and so called disjunction effect
(violation of Savage's sure thing principle which plays the fundamental role in modern economics).
We show that the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics can be interpreted as a method for approximation
of classical (measure-theoretic) averages of functions f : L2(R3) → R. These are classical physical variables
in our model with hidden variables - Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory (PCSFT). In this paper we
provide a simple stochastic picture of such a quantum approximation procedure. In the probabilistic terms this is
nothing else than the approximative method for computation of averages for functions of random variables. Since
in PCSFT the space of hidden variables is L2(R3), the role of a classical random variable is played by a random
field. In PCSFT we consider Gaussian random fields representing random fluctuations at the prequantum length
scale. Quantum mechanical expression for the average (given by the von Neumann trace formula) is obtained
through moving from the prequantum length scale to the quantum one (the scale at that we are able to perform
It is given the refinements and further development of NMR model of quantum register based on easy-axis
nuclear spin-free antiferromagnet, which was presented previously in paper. The model suggests that external
magnetic field is directed along the easy axis, normally to the plate surface and has a weak constant gradient
along the nuclear spin chain of quantum register.
In present paper it is evaluated the general expression for indirect coupling between nuclear spins due to
hyperfine nuclear-electron coupling in substituted atoms and spin-wave propagation in antiferromagnet close to
critical point of quantum phase transition in antiferromagnet of spin-flop type. It is given also an estimation
of quantum states decoherence rate, which is caused by the interaction of nuclear spins with spin waves in
A survey of a study leading to the conclusion that there is no support for non locality in Quantum Mechanics is presented.
Models based on Malus' Law for generic EPR and GHZ experiments are cited. It is observed that 'entangled' polarization,
as governed by the SU(2) group structure, cannot be a quantum phenomenon. The implications of these results for
researches on quantum computing are considered.
Previously suggested hidden time interpretation of quantum mechanics allows to reproduce the
same predictions as standard quantum mechanics provides, since it is based on Feynman many -
paths formulation of QM. While new experimental consequences of this interpretation are under
investigation, some advantages can be enumerated. (1) The interpretation is much field theoretic -
like in classical sense, so it is local in mathematical sense, though quantum (physical) non-locality
is preserved. (2) The interpretation is based on one type of mathematical objects, rather than two
different (Hilbert space vectors and operators). (3) The interpretation, as it was argued, overcomes
the problem of hidden variables in a radically new way, with no conflict to Bell's theorem. Recently
an important argument against hidden variables - like formulations of quantum theory was risen - "no
protocol" argument. It is argued in the paper, that hidden time interpretation successfully overcomes
In this paper we study the influence of pulse NMR on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit XXZ chain at different
temperatures of the Zeeman and dipole-dipole reservoirs as resource for quantum teleportation via the standard
teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero entanglement produced at a high temperature and the initial polarization
exceeding some threshold value after a (π/2)y pulse of RF field is an useful resource. We also report on the exact calculation
of the necessary and sufficient conditions of entanglement for an ensemble of spin pairs under non-equilibrium
An additional degeneracy has been found for Dirac equations system describing an electron in electrostatic field which
corresponds to spin direction degeneracy in the nonrelativistic model. This property may be used to construct relativistic
electronic configurations entangling bispinor electronic states.
We discuss a possibility of a pinning of quantized matter wave vortices by optical vortices in specially arranged optical
dipole traps. The vortex-antivortex optical arrays of rectangular symmetry are shown to transfer angular orbital
momentum to support "antiferromagnet-like" matter waves. The separable Hamiltonian for matter waves is proposed
which allows to factorize of the 3D - wavefunction exactly in a product of 1D - harmonic oscillator's ground state and 2D
- vortex-antivortex wavefunction. The wavefunction's phase gradient field associated with the field of classical
velocities via Madelung transformation forms labyrinth-like structure. The macroscopic wavefunction of periodically
spaced BEC superfluid vortices appears to be less influenced by decoherence.
We represent the economy method of separation of the entangled states of GHZ and W types which arise
in the process of association of a single molecule. It makes possible to separate these types of quantum states
in the simulation of real processes like the association of molecular ion of hydrogen by means of existing
computers with the strictly limited memory. Numerical realization of this method is in process; we represent
the semiclassical part of it, that is based on Landau-Ziner description of the association of molecules. Results
of statistical processing of the row of numerical experiments are shown.
Computer simulation ESR spectra two-spin systems for a typical case dipole spectrum of two-spin system
without super fine interaction (SFI) and anisotropies of the g-factor (g1=g2) in view of relaxation parameters
(collision frequencies is lead vmn and lapping functions pmn). The theoretical form dipole ESR spectra of two-spin
systems depending on concentration of active spin particles and own line width is calculated. Simulation
has shown, that ESR spectra contain great volume of information about two-spin systems structure and
elementary (equilibrium and non-equilibrium) spin reactions with its participation.
Complementary idempotent paravectors and their ordered compositions, are used to represent multivector basis
elements of geometric Clifford algebra G3,0 as the states of a geometric byte in a given frame of reference. Two
layers of information, available in real numbers, are distinguished. The first layer is a continuous one. It is
used to identify spatial orientations of similar geometric objects in the same computational basis. The second
layer is a binary one. It is used to manipulate with 8D structure elements inside the computational basis itself.
An oriented unit cube representation, rather than a matrix one, is used to visualize an inner structure of basis
multivectors. Both layers of information are used to describe unitary operations - reflections and rotations - in Euclidian and Hilbert spaces. The results are compared with ones for quantum gates. Some consequences for
quantum and classical information technologies are discussed.
We have developed a simple theoretical model describing multi-atom signals that could be measured in experiments on
resonant energy transfers in an ensemble of a few Rydberg atoms. We have shown that an efficiency of the selective field-ionization
detector, which is less than 1, leads to the mixing up of the spectra of the resonant energy transfer registered for
various numbers of detected Rydberg atoms. This may impede the possible observations of dipole blockade or coherent two-atom
interaction required to perform basic quantum gates. The formulae are presented, which help to estimate an actual mean
Rydberg atom number in an excitation volume per one exciting laser pulse at a given detection efficiency. We have also
found that a measurement of relationship of the amplitudes of resonances observed in the one- and two-atom signals provides
a straightforward determination of the absolute detection efficiency and actual mean Rydberg atom number. This novel
method is advantageous as it is independent of the specific experimental conditions.
We also performed a testing experiment on the resonant energy transfers in a small excitation volume of the velocity selected
Na atomic beam. The observed one- and two-atom resonances were analyzed and compared with the theoretical predictions.
A good agreement between experiment and theory in the width and amplitudes of the resonances has confirmed the validity
of simple approximations used in the developed theoretical model.
Various variants of use high-sensitivity superconducting quantum interferometers (SQUID) in
problems closely connected with development of a quantum computer are considered. 1.Hardware realization
of a method of definition of midget concentration of the paramagnetic centers, based on measurement of their
magnetization SQUID in a mode of modulation microwave saturation of magnetic sublevels is offered. The
method will allow make testing of semi-conductor materials necessary for creation of a spin solid-state
quantum computer. 2.The opportunity of application SQUID for reading a condition of the quantum register,
based on the quantum-statistical mechanism, allowing registered a state of single spin, is considered. 3.The
circuit super low noise the quantum electrometer, based on use SQUID is offered as a measuring instrument
of magnetization of spin system in which exchange interaction is adjusted by potential on in parallel
connected managing electrodes (on type a spin ensemble computer).
We propose a large-scale quantum computer architecture based upon the regular arrays of dopant atoms implanted
into the semiconductor host matrix. The singly-ionized pairs of donors represent charge qubits on which
arbitrary quantum operations can be achieved by application of two strongly detuned laser pulses. The implementation
of two-qubit operations as well as the qubit read-out utilize the intermediate circuit containing a
probe electron that is able to shuttle along the array of ionized ancilla donors providing the indirect conditional
coupling between the qubits. The quantum bus strategy enables us to handle the qubits connected in parallel
and enhances the efficiency of the quantum information processing. We demonstrate that non-trivial multi-qubit
operations in the quantum register (e.g., an entanglement generation) can be accomplished by the sequence of
the optical pulses combined with an appropriate voltage gate pattern.
The scheme for obtaining the composite operator of the selective rotation from nonselective RF
pulses separated by intervals of free evolution has been proposed for quadrupole nuclei. On an
example of three levels, it has been shown that the rotation by this operator is performed with
accuracy comparable with the accuracy of a simple selective RF pulse, but in shorter time.