This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings volume 7427, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Conference Committee listing.
Certain lasers can have initial waists only a wavelength or less in size. Therefore, collection optics with extreme
numerical apertures (NA) approaching unity are required. Although the design of these macro-optics using geometrical
ray-tracing is trivial, determining the exact vectorial field entering them is not. The theory and implementation of
Fourier, or plane wave spectrum (PWS), based methods is presented for not only the far-field, but also the near and
intermediate. A real-world example is given for which at one point a 12 gigabyte two-dimensional fast Fourier
transform (FFT) is required and unexpected polarization effects are observed.
A new sampling criterion for the linear canonical transform (LCT) was recently proposed by the authors. This criterion
was based on an analysis of the consequences of sampling the LCT of a discrete signal. Previous LCT sampling work in
the literature considered only sampling the LCT of continuous, band limited signals. This analysis has great significance
for numerical simulations of first order optical systems using the LCT, as these simulations must necessarily consider a
sampled input function, and evaluate only a sampled output function. It is also significant for the analysis of periodic
structures such as gratings. We present a review of this new sampling criterion and the associated analysis. We clarifying
its meaning and consider its applications. In particular, we consider the consequences of the analysis for fast LCT
algorithms, and for the use of the discrete Fresnel transform in digital holography. We conclude that the spectral method
of calculating Fresnel transforms may benefit greatly from recent advances to LCT sampling theory.
A method of full 3D modeling is described for a zigzag amplifier-a challenging computational problem. In a typical
configuration with ten side wall reflections, a complex 3D distribution of population inversion develops because of the
overlap regions. Unlike modeling a conventional straight-through laser amplifier, the zigzag amplifier requires about three
orders of magnitude greater computation. Seven coupled differential equations are solved for perhaps ten million gain
points sufficiently robustly to treat the extremes of Q-switching. A method of exact pixel matching and Frantz-Nodvik theory allows the full 3D problem to be solved in a few seconds on an ordinary PC.
Classical models used to calculate the Modulation Transfer function (MTF) of a solid-state image sensor generally
use a sinusoidal type of illumination. The approach, described in this paper, consists in considering a point-source
illumination to built a theoretical three-dimensional model of the diffusion and the collection of photo-carriers
created within the image sensor array. Fourier transform formalism is used for this type of illumination. Solutions
allow to evaluate the spatial repartition of the charge density collected in the space charge region, i.e. to get the
Pixel Response Function (PRF) formulation. PRF enables to calculate analytically both MTF and crosstalk at
every needed wavelengths. The model can take into account a uniformly doped substrate and an epitaxial layer
grown on a highly doped substrate. The built-in electric field induced by the EPI/Substrate doping gradient
is also taken into account. For these configurations, MTF, charge collection efficiency and crosstalk proportion
are calculated. The study is established in the case of photodiode pixel but it can be easily extended to pinned
photodiode pixels and photogate pixels.
A biometry-based human eye model was developed by using the empirical anatomic and optical data of ocular
parameters. The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens was modeled by concentric conicoid isoindical surfaces
and was adaptive to accommodation and age. The chromatic dispersion of homogeneous ocular media was described
by Cauchy equations. The gradient equations for the refractive index of crystalline lens were modified at particular
wavelengths according to the same dispersion model. Mie scattering was introduced to simulate volumetric light
scattering in the crystalline lens.
The optical performance of the eye model was evaluated in CodeV and ASAP and presented by the modulation transfer
function (MTF) at single and multiple wavelengths. The chromatic optical powers obtained from this model matched
that of physiological eyes. The scattering property was assessed by means of glare veiling luminance and compared
with CIE general disability glare equation. This model is highly potential for investigating visual performance in
ordinary lighting and display conditions and under the influence of glare sources.
The accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations in optical radiometry is often limited by the reflection model employed
(usually, diffuse (Lambertian), or simplified specular-diffuse). There are many cases when these models cannot
adequately simulate the bidirectional reflection distribution functions (BRDFs) of real materials, which can call into
question the results of the calculations. The features and the methods of modeling with the use of importance sampling
for various materials are considered with a focus on an acceptance-rejection technique and on a procedural ab initio
method. The Monte Carlo algorithms for modeling non-Lambertian reflection are discussed. The simulated and
measured BRDFs for several materials are compared.
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a proposed large, ground-based telescope that can survey the entire
visible sky every three nights to construct a detailed map of the universe while searching for faint and moving objects
(www.lsst.org). Stray light control is important for optimum sensitivity over decades of stellar magnitude. A critical /
illuminated object study of the baseline design identified several stray light mechanisms that required unique baffling
approaches. Point source transmittance (PST) calculations over multiple azimuth angles quantify the stray light
background levels and provide an indication of baffle effectiveness. Baffle design trades and their effect on stray light
levels are discussed.
The paper presents the mathematical technique for calculation of three dimensional intensity distribution near a
focal point of a high aperture optical system in case of quasi monochromatic partly polarized light. This technique is
extension of the vector diffraction theory for high aperture optical systems. It is based on Huygens-Fresnel principle:
spherical wave at an exit pupil is considered as a numerous set of elementary secondary partly polarized light sources.
The total intensity is calculated as superposition of complex wave amplitudes taking into account polarization
orientation, degree of polarization defined by Stokes parameters, orientation of detector aperture and coherence length
of quasi-monochromatic light.
There are a variety of aspects of interferometers that can be well-modeled by using rays. For example, ray-based models
allow predictions to be made regarding the changes to a measurement when aberrations are introduced into the input
wavefront. However, there are other aspects that are more difficult (or impossible) to model well with ray-based
approaches. For instance, when a surface under test is not conjugate to the detector, the effects due to diffraction from
the edge of the surface cannot be modeled with ray-based approaches. Modern lens design software generally includes
tools for modeling beam propagation. These tools can be used to go beyond conventional ray-based modeling of
interferometers. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of these beam propagation tools by modeling various aspects of
a point-diffraction interferometer that go beyond solely ray-based approaches.
Selective assembly is presently employed where fabrication of components to the required precision is infeasible,
exceedingly expensive or if extremely high system performance is required. Even though these attributes frequently
apply to optical systems, selective assembly is rarely applied. However, current investigations on selective assembly of
microscope objectives can be found. A computer simulation approach has been taken to investigate the potential of
selective assembly to optical systems, taking optic-specific influences and quality criteria into account. The process of
selecting randomly distributed components and finding the best matches was modelled and integrated in ray-tracing
simulations. Thus, the development environment originally used to design the optical system can also be used for the
analyses. Components with parameters varying randomly according to their tolerance distributions are generated,
possible component combinations created and entered in the ray-tracing simulation. Optimization steps can be employed
accounting for alignment procedures or compensators. This procedure is repeated for sets of n components that shall be
combined to exactly n systems. Out of all possible permutations the best set is chosen. Repetition of the experiment
provides data for statistical analysis of the matching process. The method has been successfully applied to centration
errors of a laser pump optic.
The instruments in temperature measurements with infrared radiation are the radiation pyrometers or radiometers, some
of them of double cavity and with or without imaging lenses. In the case of scale realizations is important to know the
function of the instrument. In a previous work we published such a function for the case of instruments without lens
considering the partial coherence theory. However the resulted expression consists of a four-fold integral which makes
difficult its physical interpretation. In this work we present such functions for instruments with lenses and use Fourier
techniques to obtain expressions easier to manipulate and to interpret. The instrument functions are evaluated and
discussed its physical interpretation for both cases; with lenses and without lenses, through two practical examples.
Antenna performance predictions and calibration times are estimated on a 37 m diameter radio telescope
subject to thermal perturbations. The telescope is designed to operate at frequencies up to 325 GHz with a
one-way performance requirement of 1 dB loss in gain accounting for fabrication, alignment, gravity and
thermal errors. Thermal gradients acting over the antenna structure due to diurnal air temperature variations
are a significant contributor to degradations in antenna performance. Integrated thermal-structural-optical
analyses were performed to predict antenna performance as a function of the diurnal variations. Based on the
results, design requirements were imposed on the radome thermal control system and the rate of calibration of
the hexapod mounted subreflector.
Thermal analysis for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) structure was performed using finite element analysis in
ANSYS and I-DEAS. In the thermal analysis, the telescope structural parts with simplified optical assembly systems
were modeled for various thermal conditions including air convections, conductions, heat flux loadings, and radiations.
Thermal responses of the TMT telescope structure were predicted and the temperature distributions of the optical
assembly systems were calculated under sample thermal loading conditions. The thermo-elastic analysis was made to
obtain the thermal deformation based on the resulting temperature distributions. The line of sight calculation was made
using the thermally induced structural deformations. The goal of this thermal analysis is to establish thermal models by
the FEA programs to simulate for an adequate thermal environment. These thermal models can be utilized for estimating
the thermal responses of the TMT structure. Thermal performance prediction of the TMT structure will be able to guide
us to control and maintain the system from the "seeing" effects.
The primary mirror segment aberrations after shape corrections with warping harness have been identified as
the single largest error term in the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) image quality error budget. In order to better
understand the likely errors and how they will impact the telescope performance we have performed detailed
simulations. We first generated unwarped primary mirror segment surface shapes that met TMT specifications.
Then we used the predicted warping harness influence functions and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor model
to determine estimates for the 492 corrected segment surfaces that make up the TMT primary mirror. Surface
and control parameters, as well as the number of subapertures were varied to explore the parameter space. The
corrected segment shapes were then passed to an optical TMT model built using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) developed Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) ray-trace simulator. The
generated exit pupil wavefront error maps provided RMS wavefront error and image-plane characteristics like
the Normalized Point Source Sensitivity (PSSN). The results have been used to optimize the segment shape
correction and wavefront sensor designs as well as provide input to the TMT systems engineering error budgets.
Complex products are best developed in a collaborative design environment where engineering data and CAD/CAE
results can be shared across engineering discipline boundaries within a common software interface. A new software tool
that allows Electro-Optical (EO) sensors to be developed in this manner has been used to conduct an integrated
Structural/Thermal/Optical (STOP) analysis of a critical lens subassembly in a flight payload. This paper provides a
description of the software environment and a summary of the technical results that were produced with it.
The focal plate is one of the most important components of the LAMOST, whose shape precision to be centripetal and
spherical structure of multi-hole. The hole drilling distortion duing to residual stress becomes one of the striking
problems. Studying on the distortion prediction, this paper adopts the finite element simulation based on the metal
cutting principles. The distribution to the surface residual stress is achieved by building the FEM model using
ANSYS .The influence of cutting depths on the distortion of the focal plate was investigated. With the confirmation of
the final CMM test result, the deviation which compared the measuring point with the theoretical sphere is less than
0.066mm. The result showed that the FEM analysis is an effective method which predicts the machining distortion of the
High accuracy shift control of the large-size constructions (such as turbine or radio telescopes elements) is one of the
tasks that could be solved by means of the optical-electronic autoreflection measurement system. The description of the
system built on the autoreflection optical scheme with CCD-sensor, its design, accuracy characteristics and testing
results are presented. The point image center determination algorithm with accuracy within 0.05 pixel as well as
coordinate system conversion method and the results of theoretical estimate of total system's accuracy are also
described. Influence analysis of optical components decenterings on the system's total error and sighting line
displacement is also described. It is shown that decentering of focusing optical element is the primary impact. Precision
characteristics were approved during the experiment; total error did not exceed 0.1 mm at a distance of 20 m.