This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8997, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction (if any), and Conference Committee listing.
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to scalable optical networks have the potential to realize solid-state quantum information processing platforms. Toward this goal, we demonstrate coupling of near-surface NV- centers to an array of GaP optical resonators. The use of GaP as the optical waveguiding materials is appealing due to the possibility of realizing integrated photonic switches based on the linear electro-optic effect. We explore large-area integration of GaP on diamond through two routes: molecular beam deposition directly onto diamond substrates and layer transfer of single-crystalline sheets. While the direct deposition benefits from simpler, monolithic processing, the layer transfer route benefits from higher material quality. In the latter approach, we demonstrate the transfer of submicrometer thick, mm2-sized GaP sheets from a GaP/AlGaP/GaP substrate to a diamond sample prepared with near-surface NV- centers. We fabricate large arrays of GaP disk resonators with varying diameters (1 to 20 μm) on the diamond substrate via electron beam lithography and dry etching, and show coupling of the NV- center emission to the cavity structures. Quality factors above 10,000 were observed in 5 μm diameter disks on the non-etched diamond substrate. Similar quality factors in smaller sized devices are expected with diamond substrate etching to further confine the optical mode. This approach opens a path towards the integration of coupled optical components in the hybrid GaP/diamond system, an essential step towards large-scale photonic networks utilizing NV- centers in diamond.
One of the key assumptions in the security proof of BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with a weak coherent light source is that the phase of each pulse emitted from the source is random. If the phases correlated, an efficient eavesdropping method exists, and more sacrifice bits are necessary to guarantee the security of the protocol. The phase correlation between the adjacent pulses was examined experimentally, for the first time, by measuring the visibility of interference. An asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to observe the interference between adjacent pulses from a distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode driven by 10 GHz clock signal. Clear interference was observed when the DC bias current exceeds the laser threshold. This high visibility implies phase correlation between pulses. In contrast, only a low visibility, i.e. very weak phase correlation, was observed when the DC bias current was set far below the threshold. The phase correlation became stronger as the DC bias current increased. The experimental results imply that a QKD equipment implementing BB84 protocol with a coherent light source is secure as long as the laser is operated in gain-switch even for 10 GHz clock frequency.
Because of low power consumption and small footprint, avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been commonly applied to photon detection. Recently, high speed quantum communication has been demonstrated for high bit-rate quantum key distribution. For the high speed quantum communication, photon detectors should operate at GHz-clock frequencies. We propose balanced detection circuits for GHz-clock operation of InGaAs-APD photon detectors. The balanced single photon detector operates with sinusoidal wave gating. The sinusoidal wave appearing in the output is removed by the subtraction from APD signal without sharp band-elimination filters. Omission of the sharp filters removes the constraint on the operating frequency of the single photon detector. We present two designs, one works with two identical APDs, the other with one APD and a low-pass filter. The sinusoidal gating enables to eliminate the gating noise even with the simple configuration of the latter design. We demonstrated the balanced single photon detector operating with 1.020GHz clock at 233 K, 193 K, and 186.5 K. The dark count probability was 4.0 x 10-4 counts/pulse with the quantum efficiency of 10% at 233K, and 1.6 x 10-4 counts/pulse at 186.5 K. These results were obtained with easily available APDs (NR8300FP-C.C, RENESASS) originally developed for optical time-domain reflectmeters.
Satellites offer the means to extend quantum communication and quantum key distribution towards global distances. We will outline the proposed QEYSSat mission proposal, which involves a quantum receiver onboard a satellite that measures quantum signals sent up from the ground. We present recent studies on the expected performance for quantum links from ground to space. Further studies include the demonstration of high-loss quantum transmission, and analyzing the effects of a fluctuating optical link on quantum signals and how these fluctuations can actually be exploited to improve the link performance.
The two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems allow higher key rates and improved transmission distances over standard telecommunication networks in comparison to the one-way CVQKD protocols. To exploit the real potential of two-way CVQKD systems a robust reconciliation technique is needed. It is currently unavailable, which makes it impossible to reach the real performance of a two-way CVQKD system. The reconciliation process of correlated Gaussian variables is a complex problem that requires either tomography in the physical layer that is intractable in a practical scenario, or high-cost calculations in the multidimensional spherical space with strict dimensional limitations. To avoid these issues, we propose an efficient logical layer-based reconciliation method for two-way CVQKD to extract binary information from correlated Gaussian variables. We demonstrate that by operating on the raw-data level, the noise of the quantum channel can be corrected in the scalar space and the reconciliation can be extended to arbitrary high dimensions. We prove that the error probability of scalar reconciliation is zero in any practical CVQKD scenario, and provides unconditional security. The results allow to significantly improve the currently available key rates and transmission distances of two-way CVQKD. The proposed scalar reconciliation can also be applied in oneway systems as well, to replace the existing reconciliation schemes.
We experimentally demonstrate the non-monotonic dependence of genuine many-particle interference signals on the particles' mutual distinguishability. Our theoretical analysis shows that such non-monotonicity is a generic feature of the quantum to classical transition in multiparticle correlation functions of more than two particles.
We analyze sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a χ(2) slab waveguide with the goal of achieving a single spatial-mode operation. We first develop Green’s function formalism for the SFG equations and then perform singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the Green’s function. By adjusting the spatial profile of the pump, we manipulate the SVD spectrum to maximize the up-conversion of one signal mode while minimizing the up-conversion of all others, which opens a possibility of realizing a spatial-mode-selective quantum frequency converter for future optical communications.
We discuss the hybrid integration of multiple components for the production of telecom band single photon sources. We implement four, on-chip, waveguide channels capable of producing four spatially separated collinear pairs of single photons. Using laser inscribed waveguide circuits and point-by-point bre Bragg gratings (FBG), we interface, separate and lter generated photon pairs. We propose using fast switches to actively route multiple heralded single photons to a single output producing an enhanced rate while maintaining a xed noise level.
Although photons do no a ect each other in vacuum, interactions between individual photons could enable a wide variety of scienti c and engineering applications. Here we report on the creation of a quantum nonlinear medium with large photon-photon interactions at the single photon level. Our approach relies on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) techniques, in which individual photons are coherently mapped onto strongly interacting Rydberg atoms. Under EIT conditions, photons traveling in the medium are best described as part-matter part-light quantum particles, called polaritons, which experience long-range interactions through the Rydberg blockade. In particular, we demonstrate coherent photon-photon interactions, akin to those associated with conventional massive particles, paving the way for novel photonics states and quantum simulation with light.
Exciton-polaritons, composite particles resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, have shown the capability to undergo condensation into a macroscopically coherent quantum state, demonstrating strong non-linearities and unique propagation properties. These strongly-coupled light-matter particles are promising candidates for the realization of semiconductor all-optical devices with fast time response and small energy consumption. Recently, quantum fluids of polaritons have been used to demonstrate the possibility to implement optical functionalities as spin switches, transistors or memories, but also to provide a channel for the transmission of information inside integrated circuits. In this context, the possibility to extend the range of light-matter interaction up to room temperature becomes of crucial importance. One of the most intriguing promises is to use organic Frenkel excitons, which, thanks to their huge oscillator strength, not only sustain the polariton picture at room temperature, but also bring the system into the unexplored regime of ultra-strong coupling. The combination of these materials with ad-hoc designed structures may allow the control of the propagation properties of polaritons, paving the way towards their implementation of the polariton functionalities in actual devices for opto-electronic applications.
Exciton-polariton systems were demonstrated as a medium for all-optical switching independently by several groups in 2012 and 2013. The polariton system is promising for such an application due to its strong nonlinearities and potentially low threshold densities. The photonic component of the polariton enables long-range motion and low losses. We review reports on several different techniques for polariton optical switching, and discuss how these depend on the high density effects in microcavity polaritons.
Entanglement plays a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, a major challenge is the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and flying (photon) qubits. Here we report the observation of quantum entanglement between a semiconductor quantum dot spin and the color of a propagating optical photon. As an extension experiment, we report the generation of a single-photon frequency qubit, interference of resonance fluorescence from two distant quantum dots and the teleportation from a flying photon to a quantum dot spin.
In this contribution, we excite surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a silver nano-wire by a single nitrogenvacancy center located in a diamond nano-crystal. By using the tip of an atomic force microscope, a second nano-wire is brought into the evanescent field of the first wire such that surface plasmons can evanescently couple. In our experiment, we are able to tune the coupling strength from one nano-wire to another by adjusting the gap with the aid of the atomic force microscope. Numerical calculations of the coupling strength are carried out, which support the values found in the experiment.