Studies on image structure and its transmission through image information system are now becoming more and more important because of the recent social demands. This new branch of technology could be called as "image science and engineering." There are, however, not any organized ways of study in this new field because of the fact that it is so difficult to find out the way to organize the people who are working now in the same field but from different technical background.
The 1960's will be remembered as the time when computers began to be applied to problems of technical, scientific and economic importance. In photo optical engineering, one illustration of this development is the application of computers to the processing of pictorial imagery. Techniques of picture filtering, band-width compression and pattern recognition have been studied, which use rather sophisticated mathematical techniques and rely for their application on large digital computers.
It has been some dozen years since studies on the optical transfer function (OTF) grew prosperously in Japan. OTF is now generally accepted as being the most reasonable measure of the image quality of an optical system.
In this paper we discuss two research programs in holography currently under study in our laboratory. One is giant pulsed ruby laser holography and the other is the applica-tion of photopolymers, a real-time photo recording material, to holography.
Silicon is rapidly becoming more prevalent as a detector in photography-photometric and anlytical instrumentation. In this paper, we will discuss some of the contexts and recent developments that make this material increasingly popular in advance design.
In 1968 the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers held a Seminar-in-Depth in San Diego on the subject of Underwater Photo Optics. The papers presented during the two days of the seminar, the keynote speech and a most revealing talk by guest speaker Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau provide a good summary of the state of the art and the future of underwater optics.
The technique of modern photogrammetry is progressing in accordance with the pace of the development of Electronic Computers. Formerly, photogrammetric technique was used only as a means of making topographic maps, but now by extensive use of the computer it has changed to play an important role in deriving numerous data concerning the earth. This is because our society has advanced highly and civil engineering projects, which mainly are related to the earth, have to be managed in a series of systematic processes.
Remote sensing for earth resources applications has as its ob-jective the collection and interpretation of information on all envi-ronmentally significant features of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces. This information is most effectively gathered by air-borne and satellite borne imaging systems. These systems operate at a variety of wavelengths extending from the visual spectrum, through the infrared and into the centimeter wavelengths of the microwave band. A comparison is made of the signal characteristics at these spectrum regions. In particular, the ability of microwave radiome-tric imaging to augment visual and infrared imaging is discussed. Recent developments in electronically scanned microwave radio-metric sensors are described, together with methods of optimizing microwave data display. Results achieved with integrated display systems for both microwave and optical data are presented, together with projec-tions for future applications.
Photography from space is limited in results by both the parameters of the photographic system and the atmosphere. As better photographic systems are developed, atmospheric effects give the ultimate limit to the quality of photography of the earth from space. The principal atmospheric effects of contrast degradation and turbulence are considered. A mathematical basis for the selection of critical photographic variables to optimize contrast is given. Computerized calculations of the ground resolution obtainable from space for various turbulence states are also given. This paper is based on two previously puolished papers from the SPIE JOURNAL (Vol. 1, No. 2 and Vol. 6, No. 1). aecause of the complicated equations and numerous illustrations in these papers, they are reproduced here to give the reader the advantage of more detail than could be obtained from the summary talk given at the Tokyo Seminar. Fragmentary experimental data from space operations indicates that the conclusions of these papers are essentially correct.
NASDA (National Space Development Agency) plans the first satellite launch by a Q-vehicle in the latter half of 1972, however, they are pres-ently at the liquid vehicle engine and guidance system employing the LS-C and JCR vehicle at the small Rocket Launcher Pad with the objective of developing fundamental technology. On the other hand, construction at the Q-vehicle launcher pad and equipping of the launcher, range control
1. Role of research simulator Greater importance is being attac-hed to the improvement of safety and efficiency in train operation whose speed and frequency become increasingly high. For this reason, along with the technical improvements of rolling stock and structures it is deemed essential to grasp them in terms of a man-machine system and make them free of defects from the standpoint of human engineering. Among others, human engineering studies of vehicles, train operation and train crew are vitally important. Hereafter with progress of automation, changes may occur in the functional shares of man and machine in the whole system of man and machine in the whole system of train operation; nonetheless there will continue to exist an interface between man and machine. Thus, research on the man-machine system in the operational setup will remain a significant task.
For short duration plasmas, such as high-current theta and zeta pinches, it is necessary to use very short exposures to photograph the plasmas. These plasmas are very luminous, so there is sufficient right for sub-microsecond exposures. Several types of cameras were used. These include Kerr cell, image converter, framing and streak cameras. The Kerr cell camera takes only one picture, while the framing camera can take 25 pictures at the rate of 4 X 106 per second. Examples of plasma photography will be shown, and the unique advantages and problems with each type of camera will be discussed.
This paper introduces the newly developed photo-optical instrumen-tation system for collision tests which are conducted by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation on the car crach and injury prevention research projects, and what we as automobile manufacturer are doing in an effort to secure a still higher standard of automobile safety is reported to SPIE, with the hope that more effective cooperation and informative guidance be extended to us for our future activities so that we will make a worhtwhile contribution to crash injury reduction.
To most observers, the detonation of an explosive charge consists of a flash of flame, a loud report, a cloud of dust and smoke and some flying debris; a chaotic event without sense or control. Those who study these events, however, soon recognize that these explosions are orderly and predictable; they follow all physical laws and are extraordinary mainly in the rapidity with which they develop. Since our unassisted senses are far too sluggish to follow these occurances, we must depend for our observations on instruments capable of dividing time into very small increments. Of all such instruments, the most powerful by far are the photo-optical instruments utilizing the techniques of ultra-high speed photography and radiography.
It was difficult to gain exact information on clinical evaluation of the gastrointestinal motility because clinical observation on movement of the digestive tract used to be done only by X ray fluoroscopy, that is to say, the estimation for preoperative pathophysiology and postoperative restoration of the motility must be entrusted to a subjective judgment of the investigators.
With the increasing number and use of computerised data banks and information systems, the threat to individual privacy, and the misuse of identity and credit cards, there is an urgent need for an efficient and secure personnel identification system.
Biomedical data acquisition problems normally involve complex multi-dimensional phenomena. Research efforts in particular often require the specification of apparently subjective considerations in terms of multiple objective events. Description of routine x-ray images in rational terms, suitable for mechanized data processing, presents substantial problems of technique and logic. These problems must be overcome if effective data reduction techniques are to be developed.
An extrapolation method to measure large off-axis MTF curves on short focal length lenses is demonstrated with an improved Zoomar MTF Meter, Model E. The method is explained with MTF diagrams and conversion diagrams to design the extrapolated MTF curves.
"Holography" enables us to reproduce a three-dimensional (3-D) image of an object as well as in the objective space. (Refs. 1 and 2) It, however, requires not only a laser with high power and good coherency, but skilful techniques for color image reconstruc-tion. (Refs. 3 and 4) Because of these reasons holography developing has not become a practical 3-D imaging method.