This paper describes the design and performance of a miniature 3-inch-focal-length panoramic camera. The camera measures 10 inches long by approximately 6 inches square and weighs about 5 1/2 pounds. It is capable of panoramic coverage from just a few degrees to a full 360 degrees. The lens, the film transport, and the exposure station all are rotated continuously about the horizontal axis of the camera; the film is driven intermittently and synchronously with the scanned image to provide the desired angular coverage. The framing rate can be vareid from one frame every 1.35 seconds to one frame every 13.5 seconds.
Paul R. Klotz, Paul R. Klotz,
"A 3-Inch Miniature Panoramic Camera", Proc. SPIE 0058, Effective Utilization and Application of Small Format Camera Systems, (1 September 1975); doi: 10.1117/12.954316; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.954316