It is indeed a pleasure to enjoy a "free lunch" with this distinguished group on the kickoff day of your 20th Anniversary Symposium. Clearly, this society has contributed much toward the advances in optical, electro-optical and related technologies achieved in the United States. I'm honored to be here and happy for the opportunity to offer congratulations on this landmark occasion.
In order to better understand where holography has been and how it might develop commercially, the Holotron Corporation surveyed a number of organizations and individuals currently, or formerly, active in the field. 1975 sales are estimated to be in the $2-$4 Million/year range; including HNDT, computer memories and display applications. Holography may be emerging from a "search for applications" phase and by 1980, sales could be in the $27-$38 Million/year range. This growth would require an improved economic climate for new technology, a more optimistic attitude among management personnel regarding holography and the involvement of substantial companies.
The world market for fiber optic signal transmission systems will grow explosively over the next quarter century, reaching almost $10 billion by the year 2000. The US demand will be about half of the world total, and will be met almost entirely by US production. From US fiber optic link operational usage of less than $2 million in 1975, production will accelerate to an annual rate of $61 million in 1980 and $833 million in 1990. No single technology in fiber or other components will monopolize the market; different components will be chosen, depending upon application constraints. R&D expenditures will continue at a high level. Significant advances will continue in component technology. Although military applications received the greatest early publicity, commercial telecommunications will be the leading market from the start. Computer systems, office electronics and process controls will also be strong growth areas.
By early 1975, it had become apparent that our major production programs - infrared and/or laser systems for the military - at the Electro-Optical Manufacturing Division of Hughes Aircraft - were in serious schedule trouble due to optics. Production was impacted by at least three months and recovery projections did not keep pace with demands. Time had caught up with us. We had moved from prototype/preproduction program phases in 1973/74 to production quantities. We had not, however, expanded our supplier base, worked on repeatable producibility of design, or strengthened our communication links. Through a concerted and shared effort over the past 18 months, the supply of opto-mechanical assemblies to our production lines has increased dramatically. This was accomplished through some re-organization, the application of standard management techniques, and, most importantly, through the development of positive communications. Communications can be improved if a three-step process is followed - decrease the psychological biases that 'block' information flow; be clear, continuous, timely, and speak the right 'language' when sharing data or requesting assistance; and do not make communications an onerous 'task'.
Although there have been a significant number of new developments in underwater optics over the past ten years, there still remain many opportunities for both sophisticated and technologically challenging designs. The key elements that will impact future ocean optics designs are identified, and areas of their application are described.
When Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was considered by Congress the discussions as evidenced by legislative history centered around the type of discrimination which was believed to exist in the early 60's, namely, overt disparate treatment against certain groups of persons, primarily Blacks. This treatment was thought to take the form of practices such as signs outside of plants which said, "No Niggers need apply", or signs on restrooms or water fountains saying "White and "Colored", and other similar disparate practices. In the ten years since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 both the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Courts in interpeting Title VII have developed a more sophisticated view of what constitutes discrimination under the Act. The Commission and the Courts have basically viewed discrimination to be of three types: one, disparate treatment, that is, treating one group or one person within a group different from persons or groups of a different race, sex, religion, color or national origin. The second type of discrimination exists where there is a neutral practice applied to members of both groups, but it is found that the practice has an "Adverse Impact" on a particular racial, sexual, ethnic or religious groups, and is not otherwise job-related; the third type of discrimination which has been found to exist involves neutral practices which operate presently to perpetuate effects of past discrimination against a particular group covered by Title VII.
Some primary sources for finding good professional people are Employee referrals, SPIE Placement, vendor recommendations, ads in technical publications and professional recruiting firms. How to use these sources as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. To improve selection attention must be given to the interview process, reference checking and verification of stated qualifications. Ways to enhance these procedures will be presented in this paper.
This is the first paper of the SPIE seminar-in-depth called "Marketing in Europe". We anticipate that this may be the first time that many of you (seminar participants) have considered this market. Therefore, we have designed this paper to give you an overview of all the aspects associated with the European Market. To illustrate our paper, we have selected a product which was designed primarily for the amateur photographer, although it has universal application in business and industry. Since most of you are engaged in the design and fabrication of industrial products, you may wonder why we selected an amateur product for the overview. We feel that this selection gives us a greater opportunity to illustrate all of the essential aspects of marketing in Europe. In the final analysis, your marketing budget will decide which aspects you will give priority. However, don't fail to make your own overview; so that, having considered each of the aspects, your final priorities will be meaningful.
When selling in Europe the American businessman has to take into consideration certain parameters, that determine in different countries in different ways the legal, social and economic environment. Since in Europe the differences from country to country, even within the EC, outnumber by far the already existing common regulations, the exact cost of selling depend to the most extend on the very specific conditions in that country to be chosen. Thus the following outlines do not pretend to give a detailed compilation of any cost for any European country rather than to focus on the most important items to be intensively investigated before entering the European scene.
Setting a price for your product is a critical and complex task in the close, familiar, homogeneous United States. Setting prices in the distant, unfamiliar, heterogeneous markets of Europe may be equally critical, but distinctly more complex.