14 January 1977 Sources And Theories Of Discrimination
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When Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was considered by Congress the discussions as evidenced by legislative history centered around the type of discrimination which was believed to exist in the early 60's, namely, overt disparate treatment against certain groups of persons, primarily Blacks. This treatment was thought to take the form of practices such as signs outside of plants which said, "No Niggers need apply", or signs on restrooms or water fountains saying "White and "Colored", and other similar disparate practices. In the ten years since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 both the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Courts in interpeting Title VII have developed a more sophisticated view of what constitutes discrimination under the Act. The Commission and the Courts have basically viewed discrimination to be of three types: one, disparate treatment, that is, treating one group or one person within a group different from persons or groups of a different race, sex, religion, color or national origin. The second type of discrimination exists where there is a neutral practice applied to members of both groups, but it is found that the practice has an "Adverse Impact" on a particular racial, sexual, ethnic or religious groups, and is not otherwise job-related; the third type of discrimination which has been found to exist involves neutral practices which operate presently to perpetuate effects of past discrimination against a particular group covered by Title VII.
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Gary Siniscalco, Gary Siniscalco, } "Sources And Theories Of Discrimination", Proc. SPIE 0081, The Business Side of the Optical Industry II, (14 January 1977); doi: 10.1117/12.954859; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.954859

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