This tutorial paper contains a general description of laser safety considerations which should be applied both to the laser product and its use. The authors outline major laser hazards which include a survey of the dangers of optical radiations as they affect the human eye and skin. The biological effects of laser radiations upon these tissues are described in detail based upon appropriate references. The paper also briefly discusses the potential electrical and toxic dangers associated with laser use. Two main approaches to achieve laser safety are: 1) guidelines or standards which govern the emission characteristics and performance features of the laser product itself, and 2) user controls to minimize human radiation exposure levels. As specific examples of laser radiation protection, the authors present a brief analysis of the effectiveness of laser protective eyewear as one user-oriented means and a summary of the salient requirements of the Federal regulatory performance standard for laser products.
Judith M. Coakley,
"Safety Considerations For Lasers", Proc. SPIE 0092, Practical Applications of Low Power Lasers, (18 January 1977); doi: 10.1117/12.955084; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.955084