8 August 1977 Integrated Optics Techniques
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Optical waveguides having cross-sectional dimensions on the order of a few micrometers on a side and lengths on the order of a few centimeters have been fabricated using photo-lithography and electron beam lithography. These guides can be produced in single crystal materials suitable for optical switches, lasers and detectors. The waveguide devices are often more efficient and potentially less expensive to construct than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, when the demand is sufficiently strong, means may be found to design complex integrated optical circuits consisting of networks of these wave-guide elements connected on a single substrate. The theory and techniques of optical waveguide devices, which have been reviewed elsewhere,1,2 will be discussed briefly. An especially simple method of producing waveguide switches is by diffusion of metal into LiNb03,4 The photomask may be conveniently made using the EBES (electorn beam exposure system) designed for integrated electronic circuits.5 The high resolution metal pattern required for preparing the diffused waveguides is made by a positive-resist lift-off method.6 Waveguide patterns can also be fabricated using a positive electron-beam resist and a scanning electron microscope.7
© (1977) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
I. P. Kaminow, I. P. Kaminow, } "Integrated Optics Techniques", Proc. SPIE 0100, Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography II, (8 August 1977); doi: 10.1117/12.955367; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.955367

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