8 August 1977 Microelectronic Device Fabrication With Electron Beam Direct Writing
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This work shows how the economics of comparing electron beam direct wafer exposure vs. replication is affected by (1) the time required for the electron beam machine to expose a wafer, (2) wafer distortion, and (3) linewidth control. It is shown that time per wafer tw < 500 sec is attractive economically for fabricating chips with an area > 0.3 cm2, that machines with such values of tw have been demonstrated, and that such low exposure times are largely determined by the speed of the machine step and repeat operation for beam spot size > 0.5 μm. For very small spot sizes time per wafer is dominated by the resist exposure and there is a need for brighter electron sources or more sensitive high resolution electron resists than are in use today. Evidence is presented showing 1 part in 105 wafer contraction for conventional MOS wafer processing. Such values of wafer distortion will narrow the cost difference between replication and direct writing. Linewidth control with electron beam direct writing was found to be a few tenths of a micron better than available numbers from photolithography, but that this was not a strong differentiating factor economically because the wafer-to-wafer distribution of linewidth values is strongly dependent upon the reproducibility of thin film thickness, and etch endpoint detection.
© (1977) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
R. C. Henderson, R. C. Henderson, } "Microelectronic Device Fabrication With Electron Beam Direct Writing", Proc. SPIE 0100, Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography II, (8 August 1977); doi: 10.1117/12.955366; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.955366


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