The light and electron microscopes were for a long time the two principal tools for examination and identification of small particles. Although the polarizing microscope remains the single most useful instrument for such identification, the development of scanning beam instruments has tremendously increased the particle analyst's scope. He can now in many cases, examine the ultrafine structure of a small particle without special sample pre-paration by using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, he can display the particle's image while simultaneously examining the major chemical constituents of the particle using an Energy Dispersive X-ray Detecting System. For additional insight into the particle's constitution, detailed x-ray maps showing elemental distribution within the particle are produced rapidly in a scanning electron microprobe. The presence, composition, and approx-imate thickness of surface films can also be determined in the electron microprobe. Thin films and even monolayer surface films can now be detected with the scanning Auger spectrometer or the ion microprobe analyzer. Besides identifying thin films, the ion microprobe and ion microscope can give the chemical composition of a small particle's surface as well as that of its interior. In many cases, information on the type of chemical compound in a small particle can be elicited from the mass spectra of the ion beam instruments. A recent newcomer in the ever expanding field of small particle identification is Microraman Spectrometry. The Raman spectra of small particles are unique fingerprints of chemical compounds for both inorganic and organic constituents and thus come closer to the ultimate goal: positive identification of any unknown small particle.