Optical heterodyne methods significantly modify the signal-to-noise (S/N) considerations for Coherent Raman Effects (CRE). Various CRE phenomena are examined and S/N considera-tions are introduced. Specific methods considered include Stimulated Raman Gain (SRG), Inverse Raman Scattering (IRS), Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), Coherent Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CSRS), background suppression techniques with four wave mixing (SUBMARINE and ASTERISK), and Raman Induced Kerr Effect Spectroscopy (RIKES). The use of heterodyne mixing is illustrated with RIKES, experimental results are presented, and a com-parison of the S/N expected for the various techniques is introduced.
W. M. Tolles,
G. L. Eesley,
M. D. Levenson,
"Heterodyne Detection Of Coherent Signals", Proc. SPIE 0113, Advances in Laser Spectroscopy I, (5 December 1977); doi: 10.1117/12.955604; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.955604