Yield maps provide a powerful tool for the location and analysis of mask defects. The routine use of yield maps has not been widely accepted due to the requirement for involved statistical computations. Empirically justified approximations are derived for simple, quick yield map analysis. The physical significance of these approximations is discussed both graphically and heuristically.
Peter S. Gwozdz,
"Empirical Statistics For Yield Map Analysis", Proc. SPIE 0135, Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography III, (6 September 1978); doi: 10.1117/12.956126; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.956126