During lens optimization we monitor the sensitivity of lens surfaces and lens groups to errors in tilt and decentration. These sensitivities can he included as items to be bounded to specified limits during optimization. Often manyfold reduction of sensitivity of critical surfaces can he achieved with little or no degradation of nominal computed image quality.
David S. Grey,
"The Inclusion Of Tolerance Sensitivities In The Merit Function For Lens Optimization", Proc. SPIE 0147, Computer-Aided Optical Design, (1 December 1978); doi: 10.1117/12.956623; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.956623