21 December 1978 Propagation Losses For Satellite-To-Submarine Optical Communication Systems
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Water absorption characteristics limit the useable electromagnetic carrier frequencies for underwater communication to either less than a few hundred hertz (ELF) or the blue-green optical wavelengths. This paper considers the case of a satellite-borne blue-green laser transmitter communicating at low data rates to a deeply submerged receiver. One dif-ficulty in designing such a system is the uncertainty in propagation losses. This paper discusses the calculation of propagation loss considering both the case of a cloud free LOS (line-of-sight) and the case where the LOS passes through a thick cloud.
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Gary Lee, Gary Lee, George Schroeder, George Schroeder, Charles Ciany, Charles Ciany, } "Propagation Losses For Satellite-To-Submarine Optical Communication Systems", Proc. SPIE 0150, Laser and Fiber Optics Communications, (21 December 1978); doi: 10.1117/12.956703; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.956703

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